Total vertebrectomy for stabilisation of chronic spinal lumbar luxation in a paraplegic dog without nociception


Journal of Small Animal Practice,Volume 55, Issue 10, Pages 485–541, October 2014

P. V. Tertuliano Marinho,C. C. Zani, F. De Biasi and M. V. Bahr Arias


         An adult male crossbred dog was referred with a history of a road traffic accident that took place 1 month earlier. Neurological examination revealed paraplegia with absent nociception in the pelvic limbs. On epaxial palpation, significant curvature of the anatomical axis of the spine between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae was observed, with the presence of a bone end almost piercing the dog's skin. Survey radiographs of the lumbar spine revealed severe dislocation between L3 and L4 vertebrae. During surgery, the spinal cord was not visible between the dislocated segments. Because of difficulties in reducing the lumbar luxation during surgery, vertebrectomy and vertebral shortening were performed. After alignment between vertebrae L3 and L5, eight cortical orthopaedic screws and bone cement were used for fixation. After 30 days, the dog started to use a wheelchair and was considered by its owner to have a good quality of life with no evidence of pain. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of severe luxation treated by total vertebrectomy and spine shortening in a dog. This surgery can be considered as an option in the management of severe spine luxation when the spinal cord is physically transected.


Abiotrofia cerebelar em um canino American Staffordshire Terrier adulto no Brasil

 Cerebellar Abiotrophy in an American Staffordshire Terrier Adult Dog in Brazil


Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2014. 42(Suppl 1): 52.

Cristine Mari, Daniele Mariath Bassuino, Angelica Terezinha Barth Wouters, Marcele Bettim Bandinelli, David Driemeier & Saulo Petinatti Pavarini

Cerebellar abiotrophy is a spontaneous, progressive degenerative disease of the cerebellum in which Purkinje cell loss and functional disorders occur secondary to an intrinsic metabolic defect. Clinically, all animals with cerebellar  abiotrophy are normal at birth, and neurological signs become evident during development. This work aimed to report  and describe a case of cerebellar cortical abiotrophy in an adult American Staffordshire Terrier in Brazil, highlighting the  pathologic findings of the cerebellar lesions. A 10-year-old female American Staffordshire Terrier presented with a 3-year history of progressive neurological  changes.  These changes began with mild ataxia of the hind limbs that involved the forelimbs after 2 years. In the recent  months prior to presentation, the patient spent most of her time lying down with a head tilt. When she stood with her head  raised, she exhibited abasia and required a broad base of support. When she attempted to walk, she quickly fell and rolled  over if not supported. She could not eat on her own because of intense intention tremors. Because of the severity of her  condition, the decision was made to euthanize the animal. Necropsy examination revealed no signifi cant findings. Various organ specimens were collected, fi xed in 10% formalin, and processed for routine histology. The tissue sections were  stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Cerebellar specimens were subjected to immunohistochemistry (IHC). Two cerebellar specimens from two normal 8- to 9-year-old American Staffordshire Terriers were used as positive controls for IHC andand  comparative evaluation of the lesions. Histologically, the main changes were observed in the cerebellum and were characterized by necrosis, degeneration, and marked segmental loss of Purkinje cells; moderate reduction in the granular cells of  the cerebellar cortex; and thinning of the molecular layer. Cerebellar IHC in the affected canine showed a slight reduction
in immunoreactivity for neurofi laments in both the molecular layer and white matter as well as a marked increase in immunostaining for glial fi brillary acidic protein, indicating astrogliosis, in the molecular layer, granular layer, and white matter.  The diagnosis of cerebellar abiotrophy in this canine patient was based on clinical, pathologic, and immunohistochemical fi ndings. The framework cerebellar syndrome in an adult dog, slowly progressive, as in this case (10 years old with a 3-year clinical progression) is compatible with abiotrophy in the American Staffordshire Terrier. The main gross  lesions observed in the cerebellum of canines with abiotrophy are projected to decline; however, these changes can be subtle,  as in this case. Histopathology revealed a primary loss of Purkinje cells and depletion of the molecular and granular layers.  These characteristics have been identifi ed as hereditary in American Staffordshire Terriers and other breeds. The clinical  signs observed in this patient, namely ataxia, intention tremors, and abasia, refl ect the loss of function of the inhibitory  neurons of the cerebellar cortex. The fact that cerebellar abiotrophy is relatively common in purebred dogs and the great  variety in the early clinical signs and progression suggests different genetic etiologies in different breeds. An association  with breed is evidenced by the fact that the clinical manifestations of cerebellar abiotrophy in American Staffordshire Terriers start late and have been shown to be hereditary. This paper reports the occurrence of cerebellar cortex  abiotrophy as  a cause of neurological disease in an American Staffordshire Terrier in Brazil.


Hipoplasia medular segmentar múltipla em um felino doméstico

 Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2014. 42(Suppl 1): 41.

Vinicius Gonzalez Peres Albernaz, Andressa Thais Roncoski, Gustavo Dittrich, Liv Cristina Miara & Jorge Luiz Costa Castro

Multiple Segmental Spinal Cord Hypoplasia in a Cat

The nervous system is one of the most affected by congenital malformations. These can occur during neural  tube formation or failed neurogenesis. Segmental spinal cord hypoplasia  commonly involves two or three spinal segments  in the thoracolumbar region. It is characterized by incomplete formation of the spinal cord and may also be followed by  spine column malformations. Clinical signs usually include functional impairment of the hindlimbs. Diagnosis is based  on history, clinical signs, age, radiographs and is confi rmed with necropsy and histopathological fi ndings.  There is no  treatment for this condition and the animals present low life quality. This paper aims to report the clinical, radiographic  and histopathological aspects of multiple segmental spinal cord hypoplasia in a domestic cat.  A 52-days-old, female, Persian breed, domestic cat weighing 0.55 kg was treated presenting a history of pelvic limb  paraplegia associated with urinary and fecal incontinence since birth. On clinical examination there were fl accid paraplegia  of hind limbs associated with absence of proprioception, anal refl ex and tone and postural defi cits. Also, all spinal reflexes  of pelvic limbs and deep and superfi cial pain were absent. There was no clinical history of muscular tremors, nystagmus,  seizures or other central nervous system signs. The other animals of the litter showed no apparent changes. Radiographic examination of the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral region showed enlargement of the spinal cord canal extending from the caudal portion of L1 to L7 and fl attening of the dorsal and ventral blades. It was observed that the height of the L5 spinal canal, the larger dilatation site, was about 300% higher than the cranial portion of L1, considered the last normal segment. Due to low life quality, the animal was euthanized and samples were collected. Histopathological examination showed neuronal loss in the gray matter, thickening of the dura mater and loss of defi nition of gray and white matter, confirming the diagnosis of spinal segmental hypoplasia in multiple regions of the spinal cord


Síndrome de Haw em Gatos

 Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2014. 42(Suppl 1): 45

Luis Felipe Dutra Corrêa,  Sérgio Santalucia,  Marília Teresa de Oliveira,  Fernando Wiecheteck de Souza, Virginea Heinze Pohl,  João Pedro Scusssel Feranti,  & Maurício Veloso Brun, 

 Haw’s syndrome is an uncommon but underdiagnosed disease that affects cats. It occurs due to changes in the innervation of the third eyelid causing protrusion. These changes may occur due to some change in sympathetic innervation efferent to the eye and its annexes The diagnosis is based on the instillation of sympathomimetic agents. The palliative treatment is based on the instillation of sympathomimetic agents only if the protrusion is preventing eyesight. The aim of this study is to report the clinical management of three cats with this syndrome, emphasizing its clinical, diagnostic and treatment demonstration. Three cats were referred to the Department of Ophthalmology Veterinary of the Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), two with undefi ned breeds (male and female) and a Siamese (male), aged between 2 and 4 years, with bilateral protrusion of the third eyelid. The owners reported that the animals ate well, were active and did not observe any other problems concomitantly, with the exception of diarrhea In one of the animals a week ago, but that had passed. The animals underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination where they were evaluated since the symmetry orbits until intraocular pressure, Schirmer tear test, fl uorescein test and lissamine green, without any obvious change, with values within the normal range for the species, except for the bilateral protrusion of the third eyelid was the only clinical sign present. In the fundoscopic exam no apparent changes were observed, with the optic nerve head and retinal vasculature normal for the species. All patients received instillation of 10% phenylephrine in the left eye, with total regression of the third  eyelid to its anatomical position. As it was an isolated problem, without visual or systemic  repercussions, no medication was prescribed, although the animals kept coming for revisions weekly for 60 days. After 47 days, on average, the third eyelid returned to its anatomical position.


Anestesia epidural na cirurgia descompressiva lombossacral de cães

E.A. Tudury 1 , T.H.T. Fernandes 2 *, M.L. Figueiredo 2 , B.M. Araújo2 , M.A. Bonelli 2 , A.C. Silva 2 , C.R.O. Santos 3
1Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco -UFRPE - Recife, PE
2Alunos de pós-graduação - Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco - UFRPE - Recife, PE
3Aluna de graduação - Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco -UFRPE - Recife, PE

 Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. vol.66 no.3 Belo Horizonte June 2014

Objetivou-se avaliar viabilidade, eficácia, vantagens e desvantagens da anestesia epidural lombossacral, junto à anestesia geral inalatória, em cirurgias de descompressão da cauda equina, tendo em vista que essas cirurgias são procedimentos longos e dolorosos. Para isso, foram utilizados 11 cães adultos com sinais clínicos de síndrome da cauda equina, que foram submetidos à anestesia geral inalatória e deixados no estágio anestésico mais superficial. Depois, realizou-se a anestesia epidural em seis dos 11 pacientes, por punção espinhal em L7-S1, com bupivacaína a 0,5%. Os parâmetros fisiológicos (cardíacos, vasculares, respiratórios, temperatura corporal e glicemia) foram aferidos antes da medicação pré-anestésica, 10 minutos após esta, 30 minutos depois da epidural, depois da laminectomia, assim como após 60 minutos e 90 minutos da epidural, tanto no grupo com epidural como naquele sem esta (controle). Os animais que possuíam bloqueio epidural apresentaram redução significativa no consumo de anestésico inalatório e no tempo de extubação, não apresentando déficits neurológicos causados pela anestesia epidural, quando comparados com o grupo-controle. Conclui-se que a técnica de anestesia epidural é eficiente e vantajosa na realização de cirurgias descompressivas lombossacrais, pois proporciona menor risco anestésico para o animal.
Palavras-Chave: cauda equina; bloqueio anestésico; analgesia

The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages of lumbosacral epidural anesthesia with inhalational anesthesia in surgical decompression of the cauda equina, since this surgery has a lengthy and painful recovery from anesthesia. For this, 11 adult dogs which showed clinical signs of cauda equina syndrome were used. After the epidural, anesthesia in six of 11 patients, spinal tap in L7-S1, with bupivacaine 0.5% anesthetic was used. Physiological parameters (heart, vascular, respiratory and body temperature) were measured before, 10 minutes after, and 30 minutes after the epidural, after the laminectomia and 60 minutes and 90 minutes after the epidural, both in the epidural group and the control group. Animals that had ep showed a significant reduction in consumption of inhaled anesthetic and time of extubation. There were no neurological deficits caused by epidural anesthesia compared with the group without epidural anesthesia. It was concluded that the epidural anesthesia technique is effective in lumbosacral decompression surgeries, leading to a lower risk for the anesthetized animal.
Key words: cauda equina; anesthesia; analgesia


Mielografia lombar no diagnóstico de extrusão do disco intervertebral toracolombar em cães: estudo prospectivo

Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, v. 35, n. 4, p. 1871-1880, jul./ago. 2014

Lumbar myelography in the diagnosis of thoracolumbar  intervertebral disk extrusion in dogs: prospective study

Paulo Vinicius Tertuliano Marinho, Bruno Watanabe Minto, Carolina Camargo Zani, Érica Siqueira de Souza, Nathália Helena Pereira da Silva Dal Pietro, João Augusto Leonel de Souza, Júlio Carlos Canola, Andrigo Barboza De Nardi

Resumo:A extrusão do disco toracolombar é a causa mais comum de compressão extradural da medula espinhal em cães. A mielografia é uma das técnicas mais comumente realizadas para o diagnóstico desta afecção. Objetivou-se avaliar a aplicabilidade e efetividade da técnica de mielografia lombar no diagnóstico de extrusão do disco intervertebral toracolombar em cães, bem como suas principais complicações. Foram utilizados 20 animais que ao exame neurológico apresentaram localização da lesão na região toracolombar e que tiveram indicação de mielografia como método diagnóstico complementar e confirmação do diagnóstico de extrusão do disco no trans-operatório. Avaliou-se a precisão do exame na localização e lateralização da lesão, e as complicações associadas ao procedimento. A mielografia lombar teve acurácia de 95% e 60% para a localização e a lateralização da lesão respectivamente, com complicações mínimas.
Abstract: Thoracolumbar disk extrusion is the most common cause of extradural compression of the spinal cord  in dogs. Myelography is one of the most commonly performed techniques for the diagnosis of this  affection. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of lumbar myelography in  the diagnosis of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion in dogs, as well as its major  complications. Twenty dogs were used in this study. Animals were included when neurological examination suggested thoracolumbar spine lesion, myelography was used as a complementary diagnostic method, and diagnosis of disk extrusion was surgically confirmed. The accuracy of the exam to predict location and lateralization of extruded disk material were evaluated, as well as complications associated to the  procedure. Lumbar myelography exhibited 95% and 60% accuracy for location and lateralization of the lesion, respectively, with minimal complications


Sensory-Motor Neuropathy Due to Vincristine Treatment in a Dog


Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2014. 42(Suppl 1): 59.

Autores: Bernardo De Caro Martins, Guilherme De Caro Martins, Rodrigo dos Santos Horta, Bruno Benetti Junta Torres, Stephanie Elise Muniz Tavares Branco & Gleidice Eunice Lavalle
From: Departamento de Clínica e Cirurgia Veterinárias, Escola de Veterinária (EV), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil

Background: Peripheral neuropathies secondary to chemotherapy drugs, especially when it comes to the use of vincristine, are common in humans, but rare in dogs. Neurologic manifestation depends on the kind of axonal fi bers involved. When motor fi bers are affected, weakness and ataxia are  observed. Sensory fibers involvement, which can lead to hyperesthesia, hypoesthesia or paresthesia was reported experimentally in rats, and is common in humans but were never reported in dogs. Thus, this report aims at describing a mixed neuropathy, with sensory and motor involvement, in a dog after vincristine treatment. 
Case: A one year old mixed breed dog, rescued from the street, was presented with multiple nodular and ulcerated lesions, disseminated on the head, gums, flank and limbs, with progressive worsening in the last two months. Cytology of two subcutaneous and one gum nodule revealed an intense concentration of neutrophils and round cells with abnormally clumped chromatin patterns, prominent nucleoli and multiple cytoplasmic vacuoles, compatible with TVT. Treatment was initiated with a weekly administration of vincristine (0,75 mg/m2) combined with anti-emetic (maropitant) and H1 receptor inhibitor (ranitidine). Fast remission of the cutaneous lesions occurred. However, after the second chemo session, generalized hyperesthesia, mild ataxia, intermittent collapse and vomiting were observed. Suspicion of a mixed (sensory-motor) neuropathy induced by vincristine emerged, and vincristine was ceased. No other chemotherapy treatment was instituted due to negative cytological results of the remaining lesions. Treatment with gabapentin (10 mg/kg, twice a day, orally) was initiated so that neuropathic pain was suppressed. After one week, the patient no longer demonstrated pain, walked normally and lesion remission was complete. The animal has been monitored for eight months and is currently stable, with no lesions, pain or any changes that compromises its quality of life.
Discussion: Although vincristine is considered to be the most effective and least toxic chemotherapy drug used for treating this neoplasia, some side effects may occur, such as vomiting, anorexia, depression and myelosuppression. In addition, some animals may suddenly develop peripheral neuropathy, with the involvement of motor fi bers, which results in weakness and ataxia. Involvement of sensory fi bers, in combination or not with motor fi bers, as vincristine treatment side effect, is commonly notice in humans but never observed in dogs, wherein allodynia and paresthesia can be manifested. In this case, the diagnosis of peripheral mix neuropathy, with motor and sensory fi bers involvement, was made by identifying clinical signs after vincristine treatment initiation and immediate remission after discontinuation. This is often enough for a defi nitive diagnosis, as there are no additional tests that identify, in an early matter, neuropathy caused by chemotherapy. Despite there is no specifi c treatment, gabapentin can be used to control neuropathic pain as it increases GABA and serotonin concentration, reducing nociceptive ascending impulses. After chemotherapy discontinuation and gabapentin treatment, there was remission of neurological signs. Vincristine-induced neuropathies constitute a persistent limitation of animal’s quality of life, especially when there is irreversible damage. It is important to identify early motor and sensory neurological signs so that chemotherapy can be immediately suspended. Therefore, the clinician must be able to identify the best moment to discontinue chemotherapy at the expense of patient’s clinical oncology state improvement, while prioritizing the animal’s quality of life.


Doença do disco intervertebral Hansen tipo II em cães: fisiopatologia, abordagem clínico-cirúrgica e controvérsias


 Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, v. 35, n. 3, p. 1395-1414, maio/jun. 2014

Autores: Paulo Vinicius Tertuliano Marinho; Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias, Carolina Camargo Zani, Bruno Watanabe Minto

Resumo: A protrusão do disco intervertebral pode provocar compressão progressiva crônica da medula espinhal  e os sinais neurológicos associados variam de acordo com a localização anatômica, duração e força  dinâmica da compressão. A doença do disco tipo II não é totalmente compreendida, havendo muitas  controvérsias sobre seu significado clínico e melhor forma de tratamento. O aspecto mais importante  do tratamento conservador refere-se ao repouso associado à fisioterapia e exercícios leves, além de  uso de corticoesteróides para diminuir o edema vasogênico. A descompressão medular por meio de cirurgia para remoção de material do disco do interior do canal medular é o tratamento cirúrgico de eleição na doença do disco tipo I, mas apresenta limitações quanto à técnica e ao resultado na doença do  disco do tipo II. O objetivo deste trabalho é revisar a fisiopatologia e o tratamento da doença do disco  intervertebral crônica e discutir as controvérsias existentes no tratamento médico bem como o uso de  técnicas cirúrgicas tradicionais e novas técnicas.

Hansen type II disc disease in dogs: pathophysiology, clinical - surgical approach and controversies

Abstract:  Protrusion of the intervertebral disc can cause chronic progressive compression of the spinal cord, and the neurological associated signs vary according to anatomical location, duration and dynamic force of compression. The type II disc disease is not fully understood, and there are many controversies about is clinical significance and best form of treatment. The most important aspect of conservative treatment is rest and physiotherapy associated with mild exercise, and use of corticosteroids to reduce vasogenic edema. The spinal decompression by surgery for removal of disc material from within the medullary canal is the surgical treatment of choice in type I disc disease, but has technical limitations in the type II disc disease. The purpose of this paper is to review the pathophysiology and treatment of chronic intervertebral disc disease and discuss the controversies in medical treatment and the use of  some traditional and new surgical techniques.


A presença das síndromes cerebelares

Revista Cães e Gatos - Ano 30, número 174, 2014
Início da reportagem - página 26


Perspectivas da aplicação das conotoxinas bloqueadoras de canais para cálcio dependentes de voltagem no trauma medular

Autores: Karen Maciel de OliveiraI, Mário Sérgio Lima LavorI  Fabíola Bono Fukushima, Fátima Caetano Caldeira,  Eliane Gonçalves Melo
Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, v.44, n.3, p.501-509, mar, 2014
Resumo: O bloqueio dos canais para cálcio dependentes  de voltagem é uma estratégia importante no tratamento do trauma medular, pois previne o influxo exacerbado do cálcio que participa ativamente em processos neurodegenerativos agudos, resultando em neuroproteção com melhora das funções neurológicas. Dentre esses bloqueadores, as toxinas de caramujos marinhos são peptídeos com adequada estabilidade estrutural, estudadas pelas ações específicas em canais iônicos e receptores que interferem diretamente na liberação de  neurotransmissores e na neuromodulação dos neurônios motores e sensitivos da medula espinal. Elas já são utilizadas no tratamento de desordens neurológicas e mostram-se promissoras no desenvolvimento de novas terapias para o trauma medular. Portanto, objetivou-se discorrer sobre a fisiopatologia do trauma medular e a possível utilização terapêutica das toxinas de caramujo marinho, atuantes nos principais canais para cálcio dependentes de voltagem.
Perspectives for the application of voltage-dependent calcium channels blockers conotoxin in spinal cord injury
ABSTRACT: Blocking voltage dependent calcium channels is an  important strategy in acute spinal trauma treatment, because it  prevents the exacerbated calcium infl ux which participates actively  in acute neurodegenerative processes, resulting in neuroprotection  with improvement of neurological and electrophysiological  functions. The cone snail toxins are peptides with adequate  structural stability, which have been studied by specifi c actions on  ion channels and receptors that directly interfering in the release of neurotransmitters and neuromodulation of sensory and motor neurons of the spinal cord. They are already used in the treatment  of neurological disorders and appear to be promising in the  development of new therapies for spinal trauma. Therefore, it was  aimed to discuss the pathophysiology of spinal cord trauma, and possible therapeutic use of marine snail toxins that acts in voltage-dependent calcium channels.


Tumor venéreo transmissível canino com metástase encefálica

Semina Ciências Agrárias: v34, n.6, supl 2, 2013
Autores: Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes, Luiz Fernando Jantzen Gaspar, Ana Raquel Mano Meinerz, Fabiane Borelli Grecco, Márcia Oliveira Nobre, Marlete Brum Cleff

Resumo: Relata-se o primeiro caso no Brasil de tumor venéreo transmissível (TVT) vaginal com metástase para o sistema nervoso central (SNC), além do envolvimento do tecido cutâneo, ocular e pulmonar e descreve a resistência do TVT ao tratamento com vincristina. O TVT é uma neoplasia contagiosa ocorrendo, principalmente, em locais em que não ocorre um controle populacional de cães, e atualmente tem sido demonstrada resistência destas células tumorais ao tratamento convencional com vincristina. Foi atendida uma fêmea canina, sem raça definida, com cerca de cinco anos de idade, pesando 9,2kg, com histórico de sangramento vaginal há mais de seis meses. Após diagnóstico citológico de TVT foi recomendado tratamento com quimioterápico. Houve resistência a quimioterapia com sulfato de vincristina, preconizando a utilização de quimioterápico doxorrubicina. Suspeita-se que o desenvolvimento do tumor no sistema nervoso central possivelmente tenha ocorrido devido à doxorrubicina não ter capacidade de atravessar a barreira hematoencefálica, aliado à resistência à vincristina.

Abstract: The first case in Brazil of vaginal TVT with metastasis for the central nervous system is reported, as well as the presence of cutaneous, eye and lung metastases and describes the resistance of the TVT to treatment with vincristine. The TVT is a contagious neoplasm that occurs mainly in places where there is no dog population control, and currently, resistance of these tumor cells to conventional treatment with vincristine has been demonstrated. A mongrel female dog of about five years old, weighing 9.2 kg, with a history of vaginal bleeding for more than six months was attended. After cytological diagnosis, treatment with chemotherapy was recommended. There was resistance to chemotherapy treatment with vincristine sulfate, advocating the use of doxorubicin. It is suspected that tumor development in the central nervous system possibly occurred because the doxorubicin was not capable of crossing the hematoencephalic barrier, along with resistance to vincristine.


Potencial evocado auditivo para diagnóstico de surdez em gato com síndrome vestibular periférica

Autores: M.I.P. Palumbo, P.C. Jark, L.H.A. Machado, V.M.V. Machado, L.A.L. Resende,  A.S. Borges

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.65, n.6, p.1681-1684, 2013

RESUMO: Potencial evocado auditivo é um método eletrodiagnóstico que permite avaliação funcional das vias  auditivas desde a orelha média até o tronco encefálico. O uso desse teste em medicina veterinária é pouco  difundido no Brasil. O presente artigo relata o uso do potencial evocado auditivo para detecção de 
deficiência auditiva unilateral em um gato com síndrome vestibular periférica secundária a otite média. 
ABSTRACT: The brainstem auditory evoked potential is an electrodiagnostic test that allows a functional assessment  of the auditory pathways from the middle ear to the brainstem. This test, in veterinary medicine, is not  commonly used in Brazil. This paper reports the use of auditory evoked potential for deafness detection in  a cat with unilateral peripheral vestibular syndrome secondary to otitis media

 Especialista em audição de animais visita a FMVZ
O norte-americano George Strain ministrou palestras e disciplina de pós-graduação




Eduardo Alberto Tudury,  Amanda Camilo Silva




Eduardo Alberto Tudury,  Amanda Camilo Silva,  Bruno Martins Araújo,  Maria Albeline Silva de Lacerda,  Marcela Maria Almeida Amorim, Jacinta Eufrásia Brito Leite



Axis Fracture Repair with Locking Plate in Dog

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2013. 41(Suppl 1): 28.


Autores: Paulo Vinícius Tertuliano Marinho, , Rodrigo de Souza Mendes,  Juliana Molina Martins, Renato Otaviano do Rego,  Erica Emerenciano Albuquerque,  & Carolina Camargo Zani

Background: Cervical fractures in dogs occur most commonly in the cranial region, mostly requiring surgery. Various types of implants are being used while fixation using plate is poorly described in the literature. The plate and screw types are a limiting factor since they can lead to loss of stability due to loosening of the screws. The use of locking plates has been advocated, which does not allow movement between the screw-plate-bone, providing extreme stability and rigidity to the system. This study describes the use of locking bone plate to stabilize axis fracture in a dog and the results obtained with this technique. 
Case: A 9-month-old male Poodle presented due to a history of trauma to the cervical spine caused by a fall of an object. Upon physical examination, the patient was alert and physiological parameters within the normal reference limits. However, neurological examination showed tetraplegia, hyperreflexia, preserved nociception and much cervical pain. There were no changes in the cranial nerves test. Cranial cervical lesion was initially suspected and the patient was rigidly fixed on a flat surface. The radiographic examination showed a fracture of the second cervical vertebra (axis) with anatomical axis deviation, and the patient was referred for surgery. After anesthesia, the dog was positioned dorsal decubitus and rigidly fixed on the operating table with the thoracic limbs pulled caudally. The surgical approach of the cranial cervical spine started through the ventral access until complete visualization of the fracture line and the caudal portion of the axis body. After perfect apposition and alignment of the bone fragments, rigid stabilization was performed using locking plate and screws. The patient had a favorable neurological recovery, and five days after the surgery, no change was observed in locomotion and postural reactions, besides the absence of neck pain. 
Discussion: The implant used in this study was small and displayed a good fi t along the body axis. The locked system allowed the bolt head to lock in the hole of the plate, forming a bone-screw-plate unit that prevents its failure. In our case, the tip of the caudal screws protruded approximately two millimeters within the spinal canal, without any apparent effect on the outcome. In a previous study, in which plates were used for ventral fixation and stabilization of the atlantoaxial joint, the screws also protruded into the vertebral canal without causing any problems, presumably because the cervical vertebral canal is wider than the diameter of the spinal cord at this location. Failure rate of up to 44% has been reported for all the processes of atlantoaxial ventral fixation if the surgery is deemed successful when resolution of neurological signs occurs, and there is no need for further surgery. According to this, the present case can be considered successful
taking into account the clinical outcome after surgery, the rapid reduction of pain, return to ambulation and the absence of neurological deficits. We conclude that the locking plate was a viable alternative to other fixation techniques for fractures involving the second cervical vertebra in small animals since it allowed relative stability of the fracture and an excellent neurological recovery of the patient.



da Veiga C.C.P., de Souza B.G. &Vieira S.L

Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 35(2):101-104, 2013

A anencefalia é uma malformação da cabeça e está entre as malformações que envolvem defeitos no tubo neural do embrião. Em humanos os defeitos do tubo neural são malformações comuns, entretanto em medicina veterinária estas malformações são consideradas raras. O exame ultrassonográfico é muito utilizado na rotina clínica veterinária no que diz respeito à gestação. Anomalias do concepto detectadas pelo exame ultrassonográfico pré-natal tem sido descritas em cães. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever o resultado ultrassonográfico realizado na avaliação pré-natal e os achados radiográficos de um feto, onde foi possível diagnosticar anencefalia. Conclui-se com o presente estudo que a ultrassonografia torna-se útil na avaliação gestacional e quando associada com a radiográfica permitiram identificar anencefalia. Neste caso, demonstrou-se a enfermidade debilitante em um cão e assinala a importância de estudos com malformações embrionárias nesta espécie para que se possa determinar a real importância destas malformações e se há fatores desencadeantes com o intuito de minimizar problemas financeiros e emocionais com a perda de conceptos.


Tratamento cirúrgico de condroma extradural lombar em cão - relato de caso

Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, v. 34, n. 4, p. 1835-1840, jul./ago. 2013

Paulo Vinícius Tertuliano Marinho,  Paulo César Jark,  Michelle Lopes Avante1, Julio Carlos Canola, Andrigo Barboza De Nardi,  Bruno Watanabe Minto

Surgical treatment of lumbar extradural chondroma in a dog - case report

link: http://www.uel.br/revistas/uel/index.php/semagrarias/article/view/13194/pdf


As neoplasias com origem no canal medular são infrequentes na clínica veterinária de pequenos animais, porém quando presentes podem causar sinais neurológicos importantes. Anatomicamente estas neoplasias podem ser classificadas em extradural, intradural-extramedular e medular. As neoplasias extradurais estão localizadas fora da dura-máter, porém podem causar compressão da medula. Os condromas são neoplasias benignas, caracterizadas pela formação de tecido cartilaginoso sendo rara a sua localização no canal medular tanto em medicina humana como na medicina veterinária. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever um caso de condroma extradural lombar em cão em que a descompressão cirúrgica e retirada da massa permitiu a resolução dos sinais clínicos de paralisia com retorno da função dos membros pélvicos do paciente.
Neoplasms originating in the spinal canal are uncommon in small animal veterinary clinic, but when present can cause significant neurological signs. Anatomically, these neoplasms can be classified as extradural, intradural-extramedullary and medullary. Extradural neoplasms are located outside the dura mater, but they can cause compression of the spinal cord. The chondromas are benign neoplasms characterized by the formation of cartilage and is rarely located in the spinal canal in both human and veterinary medicine. We describe a case of lumbar extradural chondroma in a dog that surgical decompression and removal of the mass allowed the resolution of clinical signs of paralysis with return of function of the hind limbs of the patient.


Estudo prospectivo de traumatismo cranioencefálico em 32 cães

Vianna C.G. & Bahr Arias M.V.

Rev. Bras. Med. Vet., 35(1):93-99, jan/mar 2013

Link: http://www.rbmv.com.br/pdf_artigos/21-08-2013_11-47RBMV%20015.pdf

O traumatismo cranioencefálico (TCE) em cães é causa comum de disfunção neurológica na rotina clínica veterinária. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os casos de traumatismo cranioencefélico em cães atendidos entre 2008 a 2010, com foco nos sinais clínicos e neurológicos, dosagem da glicemia  imediatamente após o trauma e nos dias subsequentes, as lesões concomitantes, o tratamento instituído,  a evolução do caso e avaliação da utilidade da Escala de Coma de Glasgow Modificada (ECGM) no  prognóstico destes pacientes. Para isso foram acompanhados 32 cães com trauma cranioencefálico em diferentes graus de severidade. A causa mais comum  de TCE foi o atropelamento e a maioria dos animais  acometidos pesava menos de 5 kg. Os fatores peso,  tempo entre ocorrência do trauma e atendimento,  presença de lesões associadas em outros sistemas,  medicação administrada previamente ao atendimento, local do sistema nervoso central comprometido,  presença de hiperglicemia no atendimento inicial e  uso de manitol não interferiram na sobrevivência  dos pacientes. A pontuação ECGM no atendimento inicial interferiu significativamente na evolução  dos pacientes, pois entre os animais sobreviventes,  a maioria chegou ao hospital com pontuação boa a  moderada e no grupo dos não sobreviventes metade apresentou pontuação grave no atendimento inicial. Entretanto, sobrevivência e boa pontuação final  na ECGM não significaram capacidade funcional  como animais de estimação, pois vários pacientes  apresentaram sequelas neurológicas importantes.

Prospective study of 32 dogs with traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in dogs and cats is a common cause of neurologic dysfunction in the veterinary clinic’s routine. The aim of this study was to access the head trauma cases in dogs treated from 2008 to 2010, focusing on the clinical and neurologic signs. We also evaluated the glucose blood levels immediately after the trauma and in the following days, the presence of concomitant injuries, the efficacy of treatment instituted, the evolution of the case and the utility of the Glasgow Coma Scale Modified (ECGM) on the prognosis of these patients. To accomplish that, 32 dogs with head trauma in several degrees were evaluated. The most common cause of brain injury was being hit by a car and most of affected animals weighted less than 5 kg. The factors as weight, time between the occurrence of trauma and treatment, presence of associated injuries in other systems, medication administered prior to treatment, location of the lesion in the central nervous system, the presence of hyperglycemia in the initial care and use of mannitol did not predict survival of patients. The Modified Glasgow Coma Scale score (MGCS) in the initial care significantly interfered with the patient outcome, because among the group of survivors most come with a good score in the initial care, and in the group of no survivors, half presented serious score in the initial care. However, survival and good final score in ECGM did not meant functional capacity as pets, since many patients had significant neurological sequelae


Choroid plexus papilloma in a Rottweiler: computed tomographic, gross morfological and histological features

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. vol.65 no.3 Belo Horizonte June 2013

A.C.B.C. Fonseca Pinto; L.A. Villamizar; C.O. Ghirelli; T.R.C. Silva; C.O. Baroni; G.P.R. Banon; J.M. Guerra; C.T. Amaral; L.N. Torres
Universidade de São Paulo - São Paulo, SP

Among the tumors affecting the choroid plexus in dogs, the papilloma ranks second place in incidence after cell carcinoma tumors. Presumptive diagnosis can be made through imaging methods, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance images. Definitive diagnosis of plexus choroid tumor is based on histopathological findings. This report presented the tomographic features of the brain in a 6-year-old intact female Rottweiler with choroid plexus papilloma. The computed tomography showed right lateral ventricle enlargement, midline deviation and an enhanced mass into the postcontrast phase. At necropsy, a mass on the floor of the right lateral ventricle was observed, associated with important ventricle dilatation. The histopathological analysis demonstrated the presence of neoplastic cell forms with papillary projections. The computed tomography proved to be an effective tool in the presumptive diagnosis of this kind of cerebral disorder.

Papiloma do plexo coroide em um cão da raça Rottweiler: aspectos tomográficos, macroscópicos e histológicos

Dentre os tumores que afetam o plexo coroide em cães, o papiloma figura como o segundo tipo de maior incidência, antecedido apenas pelo carcinoma. O diagnóstico presuntivo pode ser elaborado por meio de métodos de imagem, como a tomografia computadorizada e a ressonância magnética. O diagnóstico definitivo de tumor do plexo coroide é estabelecido com base nos achados histopatológicos. Relatamos os aspectos tomográficos do crânio em uma fêmea de 6 anos, inteira, da raça Rottweiler, com papiloma do plexo coroide. A tomografia computadorizada revelou dilatação do ventrículo lateral direito, desvio da linha média e a presença de uma massa, que sofreu realce na fase pós-contraste. À necropsia, foi observada uma massa sobre o assoalho do ventrículo lateral direito, associada à importante dilatação ventricular. A análise histopatológica demonstrou a presença de células poligonais neoplásicas, arranjadas em papilas longas. A tomografia computadorizada apresentou-se como uma ferramenta eficaz no diagnóstico presuntivo desse tipo de alteração cerebral.


Tomografia computadorizada do encéfalo do cão: aspectos da normalidade e correlação anatômica

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. vol.65 no.3 Belo Horizonte June 2013

C.A.B. LorigadosI; A.C.B.F. PintoII
IFaculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (UniFMU) ‒ São Paulo, SP
IIFaculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia ‒ Universidade de São Paulo (USP) ‒ São Paulo, SP

Obtiveram-se imagens tomográficas sem alterações da cabeça de cães, visando à familiarização com os aspectos normais do encéfalo e correlacionaram-se os achados com a respectiva anatomia da região estudada. Várias estruturas anatômicas foram identificadas, tais como o parênquima dos lobos frontal, parietal, temporal e occipital, a fissura longitudinal, o sistema ventricular, o cerebelo, o bulbo olfatório, o corpo caloso, o diencéfalo, a ponte, a medula oblonga e o sulco quiasmático, de forma direta ou relacionando-as com estruturas vizinhas que auxiliaram na sua identificação.

Computed tomography of the dog's brain: normal aspects and anatomical correlation

Normal tomographic images of dog's heads were obtained, aimed to familiarize them with the normal aspects of the brain and correlate these findings with the relevant anatomy of the region studied. Several anatomical structures, such as the parenchyma of the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes, the longitudinal fissure, the ventricular system, the cerebellum, the olfactory bulb, the corpus callosum, diencephalon, the pons, the medulla oblongata and the chiasmatic sulcus were directly identified or were related to neighboring structures which helped in their identification.


Lesão iatrogênica meningomedular em um cão submetido à espondilectomia ventral para tratamento de extrusão crônica de disco intervertebral cervical

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. vol.65 no.3 Belo Horizonte June 2013

B.M. AraújoI; M.L. FigueiredoI; A.C. SilvaI; T.H.T. FernandesI; M.A. BonelliI; E.A. TuduryII
IAluno de pós-graduação – Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco - Recife, PE
IIUniversidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco - Recife, PE

Objetivou-se descrever a ocorrência de lesão iatrogênica meningomedular em um cão da raça Dachshund, macho, oito anos de idade, apresentando tetraparesia flácida há dois meses, que foi submetido à espondilectomia ventral para tratamento de extrusão crônica de disco intervertebral cervical. Durante remoção do material de disco herniado com removedores de tártaro e pinça hemostática, observou-se severa hemorragia dos seios venosos, descolamento meníngeo com laceração medular e imediata queda dos parâmetros cardiovasculorrespiratório, com evolução para a morte ante a ausência de respostas às medidas de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar.

Our objective was to describe the occurrence of an iatrogenic meningo-medullary lesion and the trans-surgical complications in an eight-year-old male Daschund, which presented flacid tetraparesis for two months, and underwent ventral spondylectomy to treat a chronic cervical intervertebral disc extrusion. During the removal of the herniated disc with dental picks and hemostatic forceps, we observed meningeal dislocation with medullary laceration and an immediate reduction in cardiovasculatory and respiratory parameters, which progressed to a cardiorespiratory arrest that was non-responsive to medication and finally led to the death of the patient.


Mielopatia compressiva por lipoma de células fusiformes infiltrativo em cão

Link: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/cr/v43n5/a14413cr6002.pdf

Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, v.43, n.5, p.861-864, mai, 2013

Autores: Rosmarini Passos dos Santos;  Glaucia Denise Kommers; Ricardo Barbosa Lucena; Diego Vilibaldo Beckmann;  Graciane Aiello;  Cristiano Gomes;  Angel Ripplinger; Alexandre Mazzanti

Relata-se um caso de lipoma de células fusiformes infiltrativo diagnosticado em cadela com sinais neurológicos de ataxia proprioceptiva, reação postural ausente no membro pélvico direito, paraparesia fracamente ambulatória e dor à palpação sobre as vértebras torácicas craniais. A mielografia demonstrou compressão extradural do lado direito sobre a quinta vértebra torácica. À necropsia foi observado neoplasma que invadia o canal vertebral na quarta e quinta vértebras torácicas com compressão acentuada da medula espinhal. Microscopicamente, foram observados adipócitos neoplásicos bem diferenciados,com áreas de células fusiformes, diagnosticado como lipoma de células fusiformes infiltrativo. A avaliação por imuno-histoquímica, com anticorpo anti-CD34, revelou positividade principalmente nas áreas fusiformes do lipoma. 

Compressive myelopathy by infiltrative spindle cell lipoma in a dog
A female dog was referred presenting neurological  signs of proprioceptive ataxy, proprioceptive deficit in the right  pelvic limb, mild ambulatory paresis and spinal pain during the palpation in thoracic vertebrae. It was observed a right extradural  compression of spinal cord over fourth and fifth thoracic vertebrae  by spinal myelography. During necropsy evaluation, it was observed  a neoplasm which infi ltrated in the spinal canal in the fourth and fi fth thoracic vertebrae with marked compression of the spinal cord.  Microscopically there were well differentiated neoplasic adipocytes, with areas of spindle cells, diagnosed as infiltrative spindle cell lipoma. The immunohistochemical staining revealed positive CD34 cells mainly in the areas of spindle cells lipoma


Infartos em região encefálica caudal em gata filhote – relato de caso

Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, v. 34, n. 2, p. 817-822, mar./abr. 2013

Lucas Alécio Gomes; Giórgio Queiroz Pereira,
Vítor Solano de Melo,
 Selwyn Arlington Headley


Resumo: Em animais é baixa a incidência de arterosclerose e hipertensão primária. Devido a tal característica,  infarto cerebral é incomum nos mesmos. Entretanto, com o avanço das modalidades de imagem, doença  vascular está sendo reconhecida com maior frequência na medicina veterinária. Doença cerebrovascular pode ser subdividida em infarto e hemorragia, embora as duas categorias se interponham no caso de  infartos hemorrágicos. Assim sendo, o objetivo deste artigo é descrever as manifestações neurológicas associadas a acidente vascular (infartos) em uma gata de dois meses de idade, sem raça definida e  domiciliada. Na avaliação neurológica observou-se inclinação de cabeça, tetraparesia, déficits proprioceptivos nos quatro membros e diminuição do reflexo pupilar a luz. Além disso, os problemas  neurológicos foram agudos e progressivos. Na necropsia macroscopicamente detectou-se hemorragia  e necrose no mesencéfalo e cerebelo. No exame histopatológico confirmou-se a presença de necrose  liquefativa no mesencéfalo e cerebelo. Os sinais neurológicos associados com os achados patológicos  são sugestivos de infarto levando a anóxia provavelmente devido à oclusão vascular.

Caudal brain infarctions in a kitten – case report

Abstract:: Stroke is uncommon in animals compared with humans because of the lower incidence of atherosclerosis  and primary hypertension. However with advanced imaging, vascular disease is being recognized with  increasing frequency in veterinary medicine. Cerebrovascular disease can be subdivided into infarction  and hemorrhage, although the two categories overlap in the case of hemorrhagic infarcts. The aim of this article is to report the neurological manifestations associated with stroke (infarctions) in at two-month old, domestic shorthair cat. Neurological evaluation revealed head tilt, tetraparesis, proprioceptive  deficits in all four limbs, and decreased pupillary light reflex. Further, manifestations of neurological  dysfunctions were acute and progressive. At the necropsy, grossly there were hemorrhage and necrosis  at mid-brain and cerebellum. Histopathology confirmed liquefactive necrosis at the mid-brain and  cerebellum. The neurological manifestations associated with the pathological findings are suggestive of  an anoxic infarction probably due to vascular occlusion.


Uso terapêutico da associação do omeprazol com corticóide em um cão com hidrocefalia não-responsiva ao tratamento convencional

Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, v. 34, n. 2, p. 805-810, mar./abr. 2013

Alexandre Mendes Amude; Rosana Zanatta, Raquel de Souza Lemos,  Lidiane Pelegrini,  Katiuzi Quadros Alba, Fernanda Viccini,  Amauri Alcindo Alfieri

Link: http://www.uel.br/revistas/uel/index.php/semagrarias/article/view/10667/pdf

Resumo: O tratamento médico para a hidrocefalia inclui a administração de medicamentos para limitar a produção  do fluido cerebroespinhal (FCE), resultando em redução da pressão intracraniana (PIC). Este trabalho  descreve os achados clínicos em um cão com hidrocefalia congênita não responsiva ao tratamento médico convencional com esteróides, mas que apresentou boa resposta à associação omeprazolesteróides. O omeprazol pode diminuir a produção de FCE em cerca de 26% de acordo com estudos  experimentais realizados com cães saudáveis. Porém, o uso do omeprazol em ensaios clínicos com cães  enfermos, como os animais hidrocefálicos, não é descrito. Os resultados deste trabalho sugerem que  o omeprazol pode ser empregado em associação ao corticóide para melhorar o estado neurológico em  cães com aumento da PIC devido à hidrocefalia.

Therapeutic usage of omeprazole and corticoid in a dog with  hydrocephalus unresponsive to conventional therapy

Abstract: Medical therapy for hydrocephalus includes the administration of medications to limit the production of  the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) resulting in reduced intracranial pressure (ICP). This report describes the  clinical findings in one dog with congenital hydrocephalus that was unresponsive to conventional medical  treatment with steroids, but demonstrated good response to omeprazole when this drug was added to  the steroid. Omeprazole might decrease the CSF production by about 26% according to experimental  studies with healthy dogs, but the usage of the omeprazole in clinical trials with affected dogs such as  hydrocephalic animals is lacking. The results of this report might suggest that omeprazole can be used  added to steroids to ameliorate the neurological status in dogs with increased ICP by hydrocephalus.