22 de mai de 2017


Acta Veterinaria Brasilica, v.10, n.2, p.177-181, 2016

Vinicius Gonzalez Peres Albernaz1 , Isabella de Almeida Fabris , Bruna Ribeiro Paiva , Jeniffer Gabriela Figueroa Coris , Juliany Gomes Quitzan

The Schiff-Sherrington phenomenon is an extensor hypertonicity of the forelimbs that occurs when there is a severe injury in the thoracolumbar segment. A 4-years-old, intact female, mixed breed dog, presented with vehicle trauma history followed by non-ambulatory paraparesis, extensor rigidity of forelimb and allodynia pain sensation. Superficial pain sensation was decreased. The treatment was based on unique dose of dexamethasone followed by oral administration of meloxicam, tramadol hydrochloride, dypirone, omeprazole and, poly vitamin complex. Low field magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed hyperintensity signal between T12 and T13 on T2-wheighting image compatible with neuronal edema. In the day after, allodynia and extensor rigidity presented spontaneously resolution. At 10th day, return to voluntary ambulation without assistance. Schiff-Sherrington posture is usually associated with poor prognosis and grade V traumatic injury of the thoracolumbar spinal cord. We report a grade III traumatic spinal cord injury confirmed with MRI as only neuronal edema causing the posture. The Schiff-Sherrington posture often resolves spontaneously in 10-14 days, but neurological signs of trauma can persist. The conservative treatment proposed was efficient, promoting forelimb recovery on the day after and total recovery of motor function in 10 days

5 de jan de 2017

Spinal Neoplasm in Dogs

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2016. 44: 1425


Larissa Garbelini Valentim , Rogério Anderson Marcasso , Ana Paula Frederico Loureiro Bracarense & Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias


 Background: Various diseases can cause spinal cord disorders in dogs including neoplasia of the nervous system, which are more common in mature and older animals. Some breeds, as brachycephalics, are more predisposed for certain types of tumors. Spinal neoplasia can be categorized as primary or secondary tumors, and still can be grouped in extradural, intradural/extramedullary or intramedullary. The aim of this study was to investigate the signalment, neurological syndrome, type and source of the mass, presence of metastases, and clinical outcomes in 28 dogs diagnosed with spinal tumors. 
Materials, Methods & Results: This study included 28 dogs, and in 20 cases, spinal neoplasia was confirmed by necropsy, biopsy, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In the other eight animals, the presumptive diagnosis was based on clinical and neurological signs and by observing changes in plain radiographs of the spine, chest radiographs, and myelography. The location of the lesion was established as cervical, cervicothoracic, thoracolumbar, or lumbosacral, and the lesion was determined to be multifocal when clinical signs appeared in more than one location. Spinal cord injury was additionally classified as unilateral, bilateral, symmetrical, or asymmetrical. The following complementary examinations were performed based on the clinical suspicion, indications, and availability of the owner: complete blood count, serum biochemical profile, urinalysis, spinal radiography, cerebrospinal fluid analysis (CSF), myelography, abdominal ultrasound, thoracic X-ray to determine metastases, and Computed Tomography. CSF was collected and analyzed in seven animals, and pleocytosis with a predominance of lymphocytes was found in two cases. Decompression and exploratory surgeries were performed in six dogs to confirm the suspected diagnosis and collect tissues for histopathology. The final diagnosis was made by histopathological examination of the tissue obtained by excisional biopsy or necropsy after the death of the animal or euthanasia. In eight cases, the neoplasia type could not be confirmed as the owner did not provide consent to perform exploratory surgery or necropsy. The dogs most affected were poodles (17.85%) and boxers (17.85%), between the ages of 5 and 10 years, and 67.85% of the cases were female dogs. The thoracolumbar region was the most affected (50%). Metastatic spinal tumors predominated; especially those originating in the mammary gland (38.46%) and on the skin (34.61%), and among the primary neoplasms, meningiomas predominated. The clinical course in relation to the onset of symptoms of neurological dysfunction, until death or euthanasia, ranged from 1-170 days, with an average 42 days of survival. 
Discussion: The results differ from previous studies, in which the number of male and female dogs with neoplasms in the CNS was the same, as in the present study female dogs were more affected. Unlike other studies, metastatic spinal tumors predominated. After the diagnosis, the survival was short and this may be due to the fact that most dogs in this study already had more than one system affected, and consequently showed significant changes related to systemic metastases during the onset of the neurological symptoms. The surgical treatment presented variable results, and the results observed after surgical resection of neoplasms vary due to the location in relation to the spinal cord, neoplasm type, severity of the clinical signs, and possibility of removal along with margin without causing spinal instability. In dogs with spinal disorders, the veterinary practitioner should suspect cancer, especially if there is a history of excision of neoplasms in other systems.

16 de set de 2016

Intervertebral Disc Extrusion between T8 and T9 in a Dachshund

Gabriel Antonio Covino Diamante, Paulo Vinicius Tertuliano Marinho, Carolina Camargo Zani, Bruno Cesar Elias & Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2016. 44(Suppl 1): 161.


Background: Intervertebral disc extrusion with consequent spinal compression or intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) is one of the most common causes of compressive myelopathy in dogs, and the thoracolumbar spine discs between T12 and L2 are most affected. Extrusions in cranial thoracic region are rare, and there is few cases in literature reporting this situations, this rarity is attributed to the presence of the intercapital ligament connecting the rib heads between T2 and T10, which strengthens this region both mechanically and anatomically. The aim of this article is report the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of a case of Type I Hansen IVDD between T8 and T9 in a Dachshund breed dog. 
Case: An 8-year-old Dachshund male dog was presented for investigation of pelvic limb incoordination and back pain, which started 10 days prior to the consultation. It had a history of a similar condition 3 months earlier that showed improvement after clinical treatment. On neurological examination was identified in both pelvic limbs proprioceptive ataxia, absence of proprioception, increased muscle tone, presence of interdigital reflex and increased patellar reflex. Cutaneous trunci reflex was absent below T11 on the left side, and pain was noted upon palpation of T7 through the T12 vertebrae. A grade II asymmetric thoracolumbar lesion with hyperesthesia was diagnosed. On suspicion of IVDD, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection and CT scan analysis of the thoracolumbar region were performed. CT scan showed the presence of hyperattenuating and mineralized material, 1 cm long, on the floor of the spinal canal, mainly on the left side, occupying 80% of the diameter of the spinal canal between T8 and T9. The patient was then submitted to decompression surgery through hemilaminectomy and showed a good recovery. As the occurrence of disc extrusion in cranial thoracic region of chondrodystrophic breeds is rare, we report the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of a case of Type I Hansen intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) between T8 and T9 in a Dachshund breed dog. 
Discussion: All spinal discs can undergo a process of degeneration causing IVDD, in which the cervical and thoracolumbar regions are the most affected due to reasons not yet fully understood, however spinal cord compression between the T1 and T9 vertebrae is very rare, probably due to the strengthening provided by the intercapital ligament to the posterior annulus fibrosus. Disc extrusion in unusual locations in chondrodystrophic breeds is mainly reported as extrusion between vertebrae T1 and T2, and T9 and T10, with some cases was attributed to an anatomical abnormality of the intercapital ligament. The evaluation of intervertebral discs of the German shepherd breed dogs using MRI showed disc degeneration processes in thoracic vertebras. Disc extrusions often result in more severe clinical signs than protrusions, and occur acutely or subacutely, which was different from the case described here, maybe because the presence of the intercapital ligament permitted gradual extrusion allowing the spinal cord to adapt to the compression. Despite surgical access to this region being described as more complex due to the presence and proximity of the rib head to the vertebral body and the possibility of injuring the intercostal muscles causing pneumothorax, the hemilaminectomy and rib head excision at T9 could be performed without any complications. Thus, although unusual, the cranial thoracic region should not be overlooked as a possible site of occurrence of IVDD, since the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are similar to those in patients with extrusions in the most common sites.

23 de ago de 2016

Paralisia facial secundária a hipotireoidismo em cão


Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2016. 44(Suppl 1): 150

Rafael Oliveira Chaves , Bruna Copat , João Pedro Scussel Feranti , Dênis Antonio Ferrarin, Marcelo Luis Schwab , Luciana Schneider , Raqueli Teresinha França & Alexandre Mazzanti

 Secondary neurological disorders to hypothyroidism are unusual in dogs, especially when compared with other clinical signs, such as lethargy, weight gain and dermatological alterations. When manifested, these signals refer to the peripheral or central nervous system and the most common include: vestibular disease, seizures, laryngeal paralysis, polyneuropathy and paralysis of the facial nerve. Several reports of neurological disorders associated with hypothyroidism are found in literature. In the national literature, however, there are few reports on the subject. Thus, the aim of this study was to report a case of facial paralysis associated with hypothyroidism in a dog. 
 A  7-year-old canine,  male  boxer,  was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the UFSM with a history of difficult water and food intake and asymmetry of the face for seven days. On neurological examination, the animal was  alert and with normal locomotion, postural reactions and segmental reflexes. In the evaluation of the cranial nerves, there was a menace response absent the right side, however with preserved vision. There was palpebral and lip ptosis of the right side and absence of  palpebral reflex on the same side. The diagnosis of facial paralysis associated with hypothyroidism was based on the history, clinical and neurological examination findings, laboratory assessment of thyroid function by observing low serum free T4 and high concentrations of TSH, the therapeutic response after supplementation levothyroxine sodium, and exclusion of other possible causes, such as otitis interna and traumatic. The pathogenesis of this change associated with hypothyroidism is not completely understood, although it is believed that cranial nerve paralysis (trigeminal, facial and vestibulocochlear) may result from the resulting compression of myxedema deposit nerve or in the tissues of the head and neck, demyelination caused by disordered metabolism of Schwann cells, decreased blood perfusion of the inner ear secondary to hyperlipidemia and increased blood viscosity or metabolic defects ranging from change in axonal transport to severe axonal loss. Treatment consists of supplementation of levothyroxine and most dogs with neurological disorders associated with hypothyroidism will present partial or total improvement of clinical signs between two and four months, generally being observed improvement within the first week of treatment. In the dog this report, after the beginning of treatment, improvement was observed partial and total clinical signs in 15 and 32 days, respectively. Therefore, with appropriate treatment, hypothyroidism is a disease with an excellent prognosis. The report brings to clinical relevance, the importance of hypothyroidism in the differential diagnosis of facial paralysis in dogs with face asymmetry history, the laboratory evaluation of thyroid function and response to therapy with levothyroxine sodium supplementation essential for definitive diagnosis

5 de ago de 2016

Spinal T.V.T. Treated with Surgical Excision and Chemotherapy in a Dog

Monica Vicky Bahr Arias, Larissa Garbelini Valentim & Bianca Ishikawa

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2016. 44(Suppl 1): 142



     Canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) is a round-cell tumor of dogs, which occurs by cell transplantation. It is usually located on the external genitalia, and is transmitted by coitus. It may occasionally be acquired by sniffing or licking the genitalia of an affected animal. Lesions may be present in the other parts of the body, such as the skin, rectum, and nasal or oral cavities. Metastasis of the TVT is uncommon, mainly occurring in immunocompromised dogs. It may affect organs such as the liver, spleen, kidney, lung, and musculature, and rarely, may be detected in the central nervous system. In this report, we describe the occurrence of a TVT causing spinal cord compression in a dog, and the results of its treatment with hemilaminectomy and chemotherapy. 
       A six-year-old male Dalmatian dog was referred to a veterinary teaching hospital with nonspecific abdominal pain. Laboratory examination showed no abnormalities; survey radiography revealed a moderate fecal retention. The dog received painkillers and dietary guidelines. However, the patient was brought again to the veterinary teaching hospital nine days later with paraplegia, worse in the left limb than in the right, but with normal nociception. There was a cutaneous trunci reflex cut-off at the T10 vertebra, also worse on left side than on right, along with spinal thoracolumbar hyperesthesia. During endotracheal intubation for general anesthesia for performing a cerebrospinal fluid tap and myelography, a small mass was observed in the palatine tonsil, a sample of which was collected for cytological analysis. The cerebrospinal fluid examination showed albuminocytologic dissociation, and myelography revealed an asymmetrical epidural compression over the T8 vertebra. Surgery was performed with a lateral approach to the T8 vertebra, and a 3-cm epidural brown mass was found, which was completely excised and subjected to histopathological examination. The histopathological findings of the mass excised from the spine revealed neoplastic proliferation of poorly differentiated, round tumor cells with large, round, central or peripheral nuclei, and slightly eosinophilic, occasionally vacuolar cytoplasm. The propagating cells formed groups separated by a delicate fibrovascular stroma, consistent with the histopathology of TVT. Upon immunohistochemical staining, the neoplastic cells were found to be positive for MHC II, CD45RA, and lysozyme, but negative for cytokeratin, CD3, CD20, and CD117. The cytological examination of the tonsillar mass confirmed TVT. The dog was treated with vincristine, but after the third cycle the treatment was discontinued due to the choice of the owner. A year after the treatment, the dog presents only a mild spinal ataxia. 
        Tumor cells can be transmitted through genital mucous membrane-contact at coitus. Hence, the TVT lesions are often located on the external genitalia, but this was not observed in this case. Non-cutaneous metastases, which have an incidence of about 1%, can occur on the lips and tonsils, as was observed in the present case, or in the inguinal lymph nodes, liver, kidneys, mesentery, bones, eye, brain, and abdominal cavity. The pathological characteristics of TVT is quite variable and depends on the host immune response; however, there was no evidence of immunosuppression or malnutrition in the present case. The patient might have acquired the neoplasia in the oral cavity probably from licking or sniffing the preputial or vaginal discharges of an infected dog, and therefore, the primary tumor was probably the one in the tonsil, which later metastasized to the spine. This case presents an atypically located TVT, without genital occurrence, that was successfully treated by surgery and chemotherapy. This report also indicates that TVT is also an important differential diagnosis of spinal neoplasia.

17 de jun de 2016


Veterinária e Zootecnia, 2016 mar.; 23(1): 38-48.

Carolina Lechinski de Paula, Carmen Daza Bolaños & Márcio Garcia Ribeiro


 O botulismo é uma enfermidade causada pela ingestão de toxinas produzidas pelo Clostridium botulinum, bactéria gram-positiva, anaeróbica e formadora de esporos, que está amplamente distribuída na natureza, no solo e em sedimentos de lagos e mares. Em cães, a doença ocorre principalmente pela ingestão da toxina pré-formada presente em alimentos deteriorados ou carcaças em decomposição. Após a absorção, a toxina migra por via hematógena até as terminações nervosas e bloqueia a liberação da acetilcolina na membrana pré-sináptica da junção neuromuscular, resultando em paralisia completa do neurônio motor inferior. Os cães acometidos apresentam paralisia flácida ascendente da musculatura esquelética, embora a sensibilidade e a consciência sejam mantidas. O diagnóstico presuntivo é realizado com base no histórico do animal e nas manifestações clínicas. A técnica padrão para o diagnóstico definitivo é a inoculação intraperitoneal de soro sanguíneo dos animais suspeitos em camundongos. O tratamento de suporte é fundamental para a recuperação. O prognóstico é bom, exceto nos casos com infecções secundárias ou outras complicações. A recuperação é completa geralmente entre 2 a 3 semanas. Nos casos mais severos, pode ocorrer a morte por paralisia da musculatura respiratória. A profilaxia da doença nos cães é baseada na restrição ao consumo de alimentos deteriorados ou carcaças em putrefação.  

 Botulism is a disease caused by ingestion of toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, a gram positive bacterium, anaerobic spore-forming, which are widely distributed in nature, soil and sediments of lakes and seas. In dogs, the disease mainly occurs by ingestion of preformed toxin present in spoiled food or rotting carcasses. Once absorbed, the toxin migrates through hematogenous until the nerve endings and blocks the release of acetylcholine at the presynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, resulting in complete paralysis of the lower motor neuron. The affected dogs have ascending flaccid paralysis of the skeletal muscles, although the sensitivity and awareness are maintained. Initial diagnosis is carried out through the history of the animal as well as clinical manifestations. The standard technique for definitive diagnosis is intraperitoneal inoculation of blood serum of suspected animals in mice. Supportive care is essential to recovery. The prognosis is good if there is no development of secondary infections or other complications. The recovery is complete after a period of 2 to 3 weeks. In more severe cases, death can occur due to paralysis of the respiratory muscles. The prevention of the disease in dogs is based on restricting the consumption of spoiled food or rotting carcasses

25 de abr de 2016

Tromboembolismo aórtico decorrente de endocardite bacteriana causando neuromiopatia isquêmica em um cão


Gabriel Antonio Covino Diamante , Paulo Vinicius Tertuliano Marinho , Carolina Camargo Zani, Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro Bracarense & Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias

Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2016. 44(Suppl 1): 116.

Aortic Thromboembolism as a Consequence of Bacterial Endocarditis Causing Acute Ischemic Neuromyopathy in a Dog


Background: Aortic thromboembolism (ATE) is a potentially fatal and rare condition in dogs. Ischemic neuromyopathy is main consequence, characterized by paraparesis or paraplegia, loss of femoral pulses, pain and hypothermia in distal part of affected limbs. In felines, affection is primarily associated with heart problems, whereas in dogs, condition is due to diseases which compromise the blood flow, such as, hyperadrenocorticism, immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, sepsis, and more rarely cardiac problems. The aim of this article is describe a case of acute aortic thromboembolism due to bacterial endocarditis in a dog. 
Case: A female, 9-year-old dog, weighing 28.5 kg, was referred for examination due to acute paraparesis and pain. Patient showed cyanosis in nail beds and cold extremities in hind limbs, heart murmur degree V / IV, and bilateral absence of femoral arterial pulse. Due to suspicion of ATE, patient was treated with heparin, aspirin and tramadol, however it came to die less than 24 h after initial care. At necropsy, there was pulmonary edema, moderate hyperemia and severe tricuspid mitral valve. A thrombus with 3.0 cm of diameter in left atrium was found. At beginning of aorta there was also a thrombus measuring 5.0 cm x 0.3 cm x 0.3 cm and other thrombus in abdominal aortic trifurcation measuring 3.0 cm x 0.5 cm x 0.5 cm. Kidneys showed diffusely marked coagulative necrosis associated with extensive congestion and hemorrhage in corticomedullar region. Multiples focus of dark red coloration lesions and elevated surfaces ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 cm of diameter were observed in the spleen. Histological examination of heart valves showed presence of moderate amounts of degenerate neutrophils indicating bacterial endocarditis, whereas, same exam of kidneys, interstitial inflammatory infiltrate mostly constituted by a small quantity of degenerated neutrophils and lymphocytes was found. Thus, final diagnosis was ATE, resulting from bacterial endocarditis. 
Discussion: Aortic thromboembolism is an uncommon disease in dogs, generally affecting patients ranging from medium to big-sized and middle-aged to elderly dogs. Majority of dogs show chronic signs, whilst acute presentation, described herein, is uncommon. Clinical signs, showed by our patient were similar to what occur in felines with same disease, being absence of femoral pulse pathognomonic for both species. Patients can present partial or full obstruction to aortic trifurcation, with signs which range from weakness to paraplegia, as a consequence of ischemic neuromyopathy, as well observed in the present report. On post-mortem examination clinical suspicion of ATE was confirmed, however, unlike majority of reports of this condition in literature, two more thrombus were also identified. Due to acute picture and fast evolution to death, complementary exams, such as, two-dimensional ultrasound or Doppler, which are effective in viewing of presence of occlusion of aortic and decrease of blood flow, were not possible to accomplish. Severity and fatal evolution of this picture also prevented both etiologic diagnosis and treatment to be conducted. In consulted literature, descriptions of ATE due to bacterial endocarditis in dogs weren’t found, but it is believed that in present report, ATE may have occurred due to bacterial endocarditis. Unfortunately, both prognoses of bacterial endocarditis as ATE are poor and association of these two affections is probably associated with fast worsening picture and evolution to death.

20 de abr de 2016

Paraparesis secondary to erratic migration of Dioctophyma renale in a dog

Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, v.46, n.5, p.885-888, mai, 2016
Fernando Swiech Bach, Paulo Roberto Klaumann, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira


A 4 years old mongrel stray bitch, weighing 16kg was submitted to physical examination because of inability of locomotion with the pelvic limbs. Extradural spinal cord compression was observed in myelotomography of the thoracolumbar segment. The patient was submitted to exploratory hemilaminectomy of T13-L1 and L1 -L2 , in an attempt to decompress the medullar segments. During the surgery it was observed one adult parasite, identified as Dioctophyma renale, located in the extradural space and causing spinal cord compression. The patient was submitted to postoperative physical therapy, presenting clinical improvement 15 days after surgery, remaining on prone position and able to move the pelvic limbs, but not yet able to walk unassisted. It started walking naturally 60 days after the surgery. With the present clinical report, the erratic migration of the parasite Dioctophyma renale should be added to the list of differential diagnoses for patients with paraparesis and extramedullary lesion pattern, especially in endemic areas.

Uma cadela errante, com 16kg de peso e aproximadamente 4 anos de idade foi submetida ao exame físico por demonstrar déficit de locomoção dos membros pélvicos. A mielotomografia revelou compressão extradural da medula espinhal, no segmento toracolombar. A paciente foi submetida a uma hemilaminectomia exploratória T13-L1 e L1 -L2 , na tentativa de descompressão do segmento mencionado. Durante a cirurgia, foi observado um parasita nematódeo adulto, identificado como Dioctophyma renale, localizado no espaço extradural e causando compressão medular. Instituída fisioterapia pós-operatória, a cadela apresentou melhora clínica após 15 dias do procedimento cirúrgico, mantendo-se em estação com capacidade paramovimentar os membros pélvicos e passou a caminhar 60 dias após a cirurgia. Dessa forma, pode-se considerar a migração errática de Dioctophyma renale como diagnóstico diferencial para pacientes com paraparesia e padrão de lesão extramedular, especialmente em regiões nas quais a parasitose seja endêmica.

23 de nov de 2015

Meningiomas em cães: aspectos clínicos, histopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos

 Meningiomas in dogs: clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects

Pesq. Vet. Bras. 35(10):844-852, outubro 2015

Rogério A. Marcasso , Jéssica R. Moreira , Larissa G. Valentim , Mônica V. Bahr Arias e Ana Paula F.R.L. Bracarense

 As neoplasias no sistema nervoso central (SNC) de animais de companhia são frequentemente diagnosticadas, no entanto dados sobre prevalência são escassos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar retrospectivamente a ocorrência de neoplasias primárias de SNC em cães atendidos em um Hospital-Escola Veterinário e descrever aspectos clínicos, histopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos dos tumores mais frequentes. Quatorze casos (prevalência de 0,27%) de neoplasias primárias de SNC foram identificados no período de 1998 a 2013 e destes, 11 tiveram o diagnóstico de meningiomas. A idade média dos animais com meningioma foi 10 anos, sendo machos (7/11) e a raça Boxer (3/11) os mais afetados. Sete meningiomas eram espinhais e quatro intracranianos, sendo os principais sinais clínicos alteração na locomoção e convulsões, respectivamente. Metástase pulmonar ocorreu em dois casos. Em seis animais com meningioma espinhal foi realizada a mielografia, sendo que em um também foi realizada a tomografia. Em todos os casos os exames foram efetivos na visualização de desvio ou interrupção da coluna de contraste, com alterações sugestivas da presença de massa. Em cinco animais realizou- -se cirurgia exploratória visando a confirmação da suspeita clínica ou retirada da massa, sendo que a sobrevida variou de 85 a 960 dias. Na avaliação histopatológica, os meningiomas foram classificados em transicional (4/11), meningotelial (2/11), papilar (2/11), angiomatoso (1/11), microcístico (1/11) e anaplásico (1/11). Destes, oito (8/11) apresentaram marcação positiva para tricrômio de Masson e um para vermelho congo nas técnicas histoquímicas. No painel imuno-histoquímico, todos os casos apresentaram imunomarcação positiva para vimentina, mas imunomarcação negativa para fator VIII e p53. A imunomarcação para S100 (6/11), GFAP (5/11) e pancitoqueratina (3/11) foi de intensidade variável. Na graduação histológica, dez meningiomas eram grau I e um grau III. O índice médio de proliferação celular foi de 3,2 figuras de mitose e 3,4% avaliando a expressão de Ki-67. Os resultados confirmaram que os meningiomas são a neoplasia primária de SNC mais prevalente em cães, com variação nos subtipos histológicos. A caracterização histoquímica e imuno-histoquímica contribuiu com a determinação do diagnóstico, no entanto, estudos envolvendo a expressão de outros genes são necessários para auxiliar no prognóstico dessas neoplasias.


 Neoplasias of the central nervous system (CNS) of small animals are frequently diagnosed; however, data relative to prevalence are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the occurrence of primary CNS tumors in dogs in a Veterinary Teaching Hospital and describe clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects of the most common tumors. Fourteen cases of CNS primary neoplasia (prevalence of 0.27%) were identified from 1998 to 2013; from these 11 were diagnosed as meningiomas. The mean age of dogs with meningiomas was 10 years; male (7/11) and the Boxer breed (3/11) were most commonly represented. Seven meningiomas were located in the spinal cord and four intracranially; the main clinical signs were impaired locomotion and seizures, respectively. Pulmonary metastasis was found in two cases. Myelography was performed in six dogs with spinal meningiomas. In these cases it was effective in demonstrating the deviation or interruption of the contrast column. Exploratory surgery to confirm diagnosis or remove the tumor was performed in five animals and the survival rate varies 85 to 960 days. Meningiomas were histologically classified as transitional (4/11), meningothelial (2/11), papillary (2/11), angiomatous (1/11), microcystic (1/11) and anaplastic (1/11). Evaluation of histological grade was performed; 10 meningiomas were classified as grade I and one as grade III. The neoplastic cells of eight tumors (8/11) were positive for Masson’s trichrome and one with the Congo red histochemical techniques. The immunohistochemical assays revealed in all tumors a positive immunoreactivity for vimentin but negative staining for factor VIII and p53. Immunolabelling for S100 (6/11), GFAP (5/11) and pancytokeratin (3/11) showed a variable staining intensity. The mean cell proliferation index was 3.2 mitotic figures and 3.4% for Ki-67 immunostaining. The results confirmed that meningiomas are the most frequent primary CNS neoplasia in dogs, with variation in histological subtypes. Histochemical and immunohistochemical characterization contributed to the diagnosis; however, studies of the expression of other genes are necessary to assist with the prognosis of this kind of neoplasia.

7 de out de 2015

Observações clinicocirúrgicas em fraturas e luxações vertebrais toracolombares em cães


B.M. Araújo , A.C. Silva , M.L. Figueiredo , T.H.T. Fernandes , D. Baraúna Junior , M.A. Bonelli , C.C. Diogo , M.M.A. Amorim , E.A. Tudury

 Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., v.67, n.4, p.961-968, 2015

 Objetivou-se avaliar as implicações e os resultados obtidos frente aos tratamentos conservativo e cirúrgico em 37 cães sem distinção de sexo, raça ou idade, que apresentaram fraturas e luxações vertebrais (FLV) toracolombares. Cada paciente passou por anamnese, seguida por exames clínico, neurológico e radiográficos para se obter o diagnóstico neuroanatômico e a severidade da lesão. Os cães foram submetidos ao tratamento conservativo ou cirúrgico de acordo com as características de cada caso. Dos 37 animais deste estudo, 37,7% tinham percepção de dor profunda (PDP) intacta. Vinte animais foram submetidos ao tratamento conservativo, 14 ao tratamento cirúrgico e três animais faleceram antes do tratamento. Dos animais que mantiveram a PDP intacta, a taxa de recuperação foi de 100%, com tempo de recuperação total variando de sete a 75 dias, ao passo que, dos animais que perderam a PDP, nenhum recuperou a deambulação voluntária. Dos 14 animais operados, 42,8% apresentaram alterações vertebrais não visibilizadas ao exame radiográfico convencional, sendo necessária mudança na técnica cirúrgica planejada em 14,2% desses casos. Nos animais que mantiveram a PDP, não houve diferença significante nas taxas nem no tempo de recuperação da deambulação voluntária, independentemente do tipo de tratamento. Entretanto, houve diferença altamente significante entre os graus que mantiveram a PDP intacta com os animais que perderam a percepção de dor profunda em relação à taxa de recuperação. A taxa de eutanásia foi menor que em outros trabalhos descritos na literatura. Dos animais sem PDP submetidos ao tratamento conservativo ou cirúrgico, 31,25% readquiriram a capacidade de caminhar sem recuperar a PDP, sendo essa deambulação involuntária atribuída ao caminhar espinal. 

Our aim of was to study the implications and results associated with conservative and surgical treatment of dogs with thoracolumbar Vertebral fractures and luxations (VFL) so that the information obtained can be used to obtain guidelines that lead to greater recovery rates. For such, 37 dogs presenting VFL were examined, without distinction of sex, breed, or age. Each patient had detailed history obtained, followed by clinical, neurologic and radiographic exams for obtaining neuroanatomic location and severity of the nervous and vertebral lesions. The dogs were submitted to conservative or surgical treatment according to each case. Deep pain perception (DPP) was intact in 37.7% of the 37 dogs in this study. Twenty dogs received conservative treatment, 14 underwent surgery and three dogs died before treatment. Of the dogs with intact DPP, 100% recovered, with a recovery time varying between seven and 75 days, while none of the dogs that lost DPP recovered voluntary motion. Of the 14 dogs submitted to surgery, 42.8% had vertebral lesions that weren't detected using conventional radiography, which demonstrates the low sensitivity of this exam, and led to a need for a change in the planned surgical technique in 14.2% of these cases. In dogs with intact DPP there was no significant difference in time or rate of recovery of voluntary motion, regardless of the treatment method. However, there was a highly significant difference between the dogs which retained and lost DPP regarding recovery rates. The percentage of euthanasia was less than in other reports, probably due to the greater awareness and protectiveness of owners nowadays. Of the dogs without DPP treated either surgically  or conservatively, 31.25% recovered ambulation without recovery of DPP, characterizing this ambulation as involuntary, attributed to spinal walking

1 de out de 2015



 Carolina Camargo Zani, Paulo Vinícius Tertuliano Marinho. Bruno Watanabe Minto,Tiago Barbalho Lima, Paola Castro Moraes, José Luiz Laus

 Vet. e Zootec. 2015 jun.; 22(2): 163-182

 A instabilidade da articulação atlantoaxial é uma afecção comum entre cães de raça de pequeno porte, e os sinais clínicos desenvolvem-se com menos de dois anos de idade, geralmente são progressivos e o paciente apresenta hiperestesia cervical, ataxia proprioceptiva, e em casos severos paraplegia. A instabilidade pode gerar subluxação dorsal do axis em relação ao atlas, levando a uma lesão medular em diferentes níveis. Alterações congênitas, como ausência ou hipoplasia do processo odontóide e ligamentos, ou traumáticas, como fraturas do processo odontóide e ruptura dos ligamentos estão envolvidas na fisiopatologia da afecção. O diagnóstico pode ser realizado com auxílio de radiografias lateral e ventrodorsal com a região craniocervical em posição neutra. O tratamento clínico é a escolha primária e faz-se o uso de colar cervical por três meses, confinamento e corticosteróides. Exceção a este tratamento são pacientes com apresentação clínica severa ou refratários ao tratamento conservativo, nestes casos indica-se a cirurgia para estabilização por meio de abordagens ventrais ou dorsais. Observou-se que as técnicas cirúrgicas ventrais apresentam maiores índices de sucesso e menores recorrências de recidivas, contudo, as estabilizações cirúrgicas continuam a ser um desafio pela elevada taxa de complicações e óbitos transoperatórios.

The instability of the atlantoaxial joint is a common condition among dogs small breed, and clinical signs are developed under two years of age, are usually progressive and the patient presents cervical hyperesthesia, ataxia proprioceptive, and in severe cases tetraplegia. The instability can generate subluxation dorsal of axis in relation to the atlas, leading to spinal cord injury at different levels. Congenital abnormalities, such as absence or hypoplasia of the odontoid process and ligaments, or traumatic, such as fractures of the odontoid process and rupture of ligaments are involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. The diagnosis can be performed with the aid of lateral X-rays with the DV region craniocervical in neutral position. Clinical treatment is the primary choice and makes the use of cervical collar for three months confinement and corticosteroids. Exception to this treatment are patients with severe clinical presentation or refractory to conservative treatment in these cases is indicated surgery to stabilize through the ventral or dorsal approaches. It was observed that the ventral surgical techniques have higher success rates and lower recurrence of relapse, however, surgical stabilization remains a challenge due to high rate of intraoperative complications and death

3 de set de 2015

Myelopathy associated with cervical epidural spinal metastasis of follicular-compact thyroid carcinoma in two dogs

Camila Tochetto,  Fábio Brum Rosa,  Rosmarini Passos dos Santos,  Alexandre Mazzanti,  Rafael Almeida Fighera, Glaucia Denise Kommers

CIÊNCIA RURAL, v.45, n.8, p. 1487-1491, 2015

 ABSTRACT: This case report describes the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in two dogs with myelopathy associated with metastasis of follicular-compact thyroid carcinoma. Microscopically, both primary neoplasms were characterized by polygonal cells arranged in follicles (occasionally filled with eosinophilic colloid-like material) or in sheets. The neoplastic cells had a moderately eosinophilic cytoplasm and there was moderate anisokaryosis and anisocytosis. Additionally, the neoplastic cells were positive for thyroglobulin on immunohistochemistry, confirming the follicular origin of both tumors. This is a very uncommon presentation of this pathological condition. Key words: immunohistochemistry, oncology, thyroid tumor, neurooncology.

 RESUMO:  Este relato de caso descreve os achados clínicos, histopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos em dois cães com mielopatia associada à metástase de carcinoma de tireoide. Microscopicamente, ambos os neoplasmas primários eram caracterizados por células poligonais arranjadas em folículos (ocasionalmente preenchidos por material eosinofílico semelhante a coloide) ou em folhetos. As células neoplásicas tinham moderado citoplasma eosinofílico e moderada anisocitose e anisocariose. Adicionalmente, as células neoplásicas foram positivas para tireoglobulina, confirmando a origem folicular dos tumores em ambos os cães. Essa é uma apresentação incomum dessa condição patológica. Palavras-chave: imuno-histoquímica, oncologia, tumor de tireoide, neurooncologia.

31 de ago de 2015

Cerebral abscess in dog - Case report


Juliana de Castro Cosme , Maria Aparecida da Silva , Romeri Pedro dos Santos , Paulo Sérgio Cruz de Andrade Júnior and Louisiane de Carvalho Nunes

 Rev. Bras. Med. Vet., 37(1):15-19, jan/mar 2015

 ABSTRACT: Cerebral abscess is an affection of the nervous system with rare manifestation in dogs, caused by proliferation of pyogenic bacteria. The aim of this work was to describe the clinical and pathological findings in a case of cerebral abscess in dog, as well as to discuss the adopted treatment procedures. A 48-day old, male labrador dog was examined at the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES), exhibiting a lesion caused by trauma on the frontal left region of the skull. The animal presented signs of ataxia and apathy, and received antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment. The animal died 30 days after consultation. Among other macroscopic findings, necroscopic examination revealed cutaneous scabby lesion on the frontal left region of the skull, cerebellar herniation, and increase of the left hemiencephalon. Microscopical analyses showed neutrophilic leptomeningitis of brain, cerebellum and cord, neuropil vacuolation, and neutrophilic infiltrate in the perivascular Virchow-Robin spaces of the brain. Staphylococcus sp. was evidenced by microbiological isolation. The non-specificity of the clinical signs in cases of cerebral abscess may hinder the establishment of an early diagnosis, thus reducing the treatment and survival chances of the animal

26 de ago de 2015

Intraoperative ultrasonography of the vertebral canal in dogs

M.A. Bonelli , E.A. Tudury , C.R.O. Santos , B.M. Araújo , C.C. Diogo , A.C. Silva , F.S. Costa

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. vol.67 no.3 Belo Horizonte May/June 2015



Intraoperative ultrasound (IOS) can provide details on various conditions of the spinal cord and vertebral canal. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using IOS in dogs undergoing spinal surgery and to describe the main findings. The vertebral canal of 21 dogs was examined with intraoperative ultrasonography: 13 underwent spinal surgery for removal of herniated intervertebral disc material, three for stabilization of vertebral fracture/luxation, two for removal of vertebral neoplasia, and three for cauda equina decompression. Particular attention was given to signs of cord compression. Intraoperative ultrasonography was feasible and useful in dogs undergoing surgery for spinal cord or cauda equina decompression and fracture stabilization. It was not paramount for locating the compression when this had been done via computed tomography (CT), but it showed alterations in spinal cord parenchyma not observed on CT and also confirmed adequate decompression of the spinal cord. The main advantages of intraoperative ultrasonography were estimation of vascularization and extent of spinal cord lesion. Most importantly, it allowed real time evaluation of the spinal cord and vertebral canal, which permits the modification of the surgical procedure.
Key words: neurology; ultrasound; spinal cord

A ultrassonografia intraoperatória pode fornecer detalhes sobre diversas condições da medula espinal e canal vertebral. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade da utilização da ultrassonografia intraoperatória em cães submetidos à cirurgia espinomedular e descrever os principais achados. O canal vertebral de 21 cães foi examinado com ultrassonografia intraoperatória - 13 foram submetidos à cirurgia para remoção de material de disco herniado, três para estabilização de fratura/luxação vertebral, dois para remoção de neoplasia vertebral e três para descompressão de cauda equina. Atenção especial foi dada a sinais de compressão medular. A ultrassonografia intraoperatória foi viável e útil em cães submetidos a cirurgia para descompressão da medula espinal ou cauda equina e estabilização de fratura. Apesar de não ser indispensável para localização da compressão quando isso havia sido feito através de tomografia computadorizada (TC), demonstrou alterações no parênquima que não haviam sido observadas pela TC e confirmou a adequada descompressão da medula espinhal. As principais vantagens da ultrassonografia intraoperatória foram: estimar a vascularização e a extensão da lesão medular. Principalmente, permitiu uma avaliação em tempo real da medula espinal e do canal vertebral, o que permite modificação do procedimento cirúrgico.
Palavras-Chave: neurologia; ultrassonografia; medula espinal

29 de abr de 2015

Functional neurologic recovery in two dogs diagnosed with severe luxation of the vertebral column

Recuperação da função neurológica em dois cães com deslocamento grave da coluna vertebral

 Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, v. 36, n. 2, p. 901-908, mar./abr. 2015

Mônica Vicky Bahr Arias; Daniela Scapini Mendes; Nazilton de Paula Reis Filho

 Abstract: Traumatic injuries to the vertebral column, spinal cord, and cauda equina nerve roots occur frequently in human and veterinary medicine and lead to devastating consequences. Complications include partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and visceral functions, which are among the main causes of euthanasia in dogs. The present case report describes neurological functional recovery in two dogs that were treated surgically for severe spinal fracture and vertebral luxation. In the first case, a stray, mixed breed puppy was diagnosed with thoracolumbar syndrome and Schiff-Scherrington posture, as well as a T13 caudal epiphyseal fracture with 100% luxation between vertebrae T13 and L1; despite these injuries, the animal did show deep pain sensation in the pelvic limbs. Decompression through hemilaminectomy and spinal stabilization with vertebral body pins and bone cement were performed, and the treatment was supplemented with physiotherapy and acupuncture . In the second case, a mixed breed dog was diagnosed with a vertebral fracture and severe luxation between L6 and L7 after a vehicular trauma, but maintained nociception and perineal reflex. Surgical stabilization of the spine was performed using a modified dorsal segmental fixation technique Both patients showed significant recovery of neurological function. Complete luxation of the spinal canal observed radiographically does not mean a poor prognosis, and in some cases, motor, sensory, and visceral functions all have the potential for recovery. In the first case the determining factor for good prognosis was the presence of deep pain perception, and in the second case the prognosis was determined by the presence of sensitivity and anal sphincter tone during the initial neurological examination.

Resumo: Lesões traumáticas à coluna vertebral, medula espinhal e raízes nervosas da cauda equina ocorrem frequentemente na medicina veterinária e humana, levando a sequelas devastadoras, como perda parcial ou completa das funções motoras, sensoriais e viscerais, sendo a ocorrência destas sequelas uma das principais causas de eutanásia em cães. O objetivo do presente trabalho é relatar a recuperação da função neurológica em dois cães com fratura vertebral e deslocamento do canal medular de mais de 100% tratados cirurgicamente. O primeiro caso ocorreu em um filhote de cão sem raça definida (SRD) encontrado na rua com síndrome toracolombar e presença de postura de Schiff-Scherrington, constatando-se fratura em epífise caudal do corpo vertebral de T13 com luxação grave entre as vértebras T13 e L1, porém o animal apresentava sensibilidade dolorosa profunda em membros pélvicos. O tratamento utilizado neste caso foi descompressão através de hemilaminectomia e estabilização da coluna com pinos nos corpos vertebrais e cimento ósseo, além de fisioterapia e acupuntura. O segundo caso ocorreu em cão SRD atropelado, que apresentou fratura e luxação entre L6, L7 e grande desvio entre os fragmentos, que porém apresentava nocicepção e reflexo perineal preservado. O tratamento realizado foi a estabilização da coluna através da técnica de fixação segmentar dorsal modificada. Ambos os pacientes apresentaram recuperação significativa da função neurológica, permanecendo com discreta paresia de membros posteriores. O deslocamento de 100% do canal vertebral à avaliação radiográfica não significa prognóstico ruim, havendo em alguns casos chance de recuperação das funções motoras, sensoriais e viscerais. No primeiro caso o fator determinante para o bom prognóstico foi a presença de percepção da dor profunda, e no segundo caso, o prognóstico foi determinado pela presença de sensibilidade e tônus no esfíncter anal durante o exame neurológico inicial.

13 de abr de 2015

Diagnóstico presuntivo de embolismo fibrocartilaginoso em 12 cães

Presumptive Diagnosis of Fibrocartilaginous Embolism in 12 Dogs
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2013. 41(Suppl 1): 25

Rafael Oliveira Chaves, Diego Vilibaldo Beckmann, Rosmarini Passos dos Santos, Amanda Oliveira Andrades, Matheus Macagnan, Graciane Aiello, André Vasconcelos Soares & Alexandre Mazzanti

 Background: Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy is a syndrome of spinal cord infarction caused by fi brocartilaginous emboli identical to the nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disk. The signals were acute and not progressive, asymmetric in 92% and neuroanatomic regions were affected C6-T2 (n = 2), L3-T3 (n = 5) and L4-S3 (n = 5). The diagnosis was based on history, fi ndings on physical and neurological examination and exclusion of differential diagnosis. The aim of this study was to report twelve dogs treated at Hospital Veterinário Universitário (HVU), Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM) with a presumptive diagnosis of fi brocartilaginous embolism. Cases: Seven males and fi ve females dogs were referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Federal University of Santa Maria: three rottweiler dogs, two labradors retrievers, one fi la brasileiro, one chow-chow, one boxer, one schnauzer, one German shepherd, one mixed breed and one greyhound, aged between one year and three months and eleven. In all cases, the owners reported during the anamnesis partial or complete loss of movement of member(s) involved(s) acutely with no history of trauma. For anatomical localization of the lesion was performed neurological examination. As complementary exams were requested blood count, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, and radiography of the spine. Contrast radiography (myelography) and cerebrospinal fl uid analysis were performed only in eight dogs. Front of the historical, clinical fi ndings, neurological and complementary exams the presumptive diagnosis was fi brocartilaginous embolism. The dogs were subjected to passive physical therapy and showed satisfactory clinical improvement in the first month after onset of clinical signs. Discussion: The myelopathy fi brocartilaginous embolism is commonly reported in dogs of large and giant breed. In this study, 92% were of large breeds. The mean age of onset of clinical signs in this study was 4.5 years, and male dogs, the most affected, result similar to that found in other studies. Neurological signs vary depending on the location and severity of ischemic lesions of the spinal cord and asymmetric signals in 55% to 61% of the dogs. Of the twelve dogs of this study, signals were asymmetric and eleven of them were affected neuroanatomic regions C6-T2 (n = 2), L3-T3 (n = 5) L4-S3 (n = 5). In other studies, the most affected areas were T3-L3 and L4-S3. Intensive physical activity seems to be involved in about half the cases of embolism few hours. Except for two dogs of breed rottweiler and SRD in this study, all had a history of physical activity at the onset of clinical signs. There were no changes in blood count, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, and radiography of the spine in the twelve dogs. With the exception of four dogs, the other underwent contrast radiography (myelography) and cerebrospinal fl uid analysis and only in German Shepherd and Labrador was observed intramedullary compression standard to myelography and mild lymphocytic pleocytosis and increased protein in the CSF, respectively. Diagnosis of fi brocartilaginous embolism cases in this study was based on history, fi ndings on physical and neurological examination, exclusion of differential diagnosis by laboratory tests and clinical evolution. In ten dogs of this study, was performed only physical therapy and nine of them were observed clinical signs of recovery between one and fi ve weeks. The study brings to clinical relevance, the importance of fi brocartilaginous embolism in the differential diagnosis of dogs with a history of acute loss of limb movements, with or without asymmetry, non-progressive, no pain on palpation of the spine. This may be favorable prognosis in patients with signs of recovery during the first month.

8 de abr de 2015

Prednisona e meloxicam no tratamento de ratos submetidos ao trauma agudo da medula espinhal

Prednisone and meloxicam in the treatment of rats underwent to acute spinal cord injury

 Graciane Aiello, Alexandre Mazzanti, Diego Vilibaldo Beckmann, Rosmarini Passos dos Santos, Amanda Oliveira de Andrades,Heloisa Einloft Palma, Cinthia Melazzo de Andrade, André Vasconcelos Soares

 Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, v.45, n.1, p.124-130, jan, 2015

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito da prednisona e do meloxicam na terapia de ratos submetidos ao modelo experimental de trauma agudo da medula espinhal, induzida pelo cateter de Fogarty 2Fr, mediante a avaliação dos parâmetros de estresse oxidativo, dos testes neurológicos e do exame histopatológico da medula espinhal. Foram utilizados 90 ratos Wistar, distribuídos em seis grupos, denominados controle salina ou GCS (n=15), controle prednisona ou GCP (n=15), controle meloxicam ou GCM (n=15), trauma mais salina ou GTS (n=15), trauma mais prednisona ou GTP (n=15) e trauma mais meloxicam GTM (n=15). Cada grupo foi redistribuído em três subgrupos de igual número, de acordo com o tempo de tratamento no pós-operatório de 24h, 72h e sete dias. Todos os grupos foram submetidos à laminectomia e, nos grupos GTS, GTM e GTP, após a exposição da medula espinhal, foi realizado o trauma medular compressivo, utilizando o cateter de Fogarty 2Fr. Os grupos GCS e GTS foram tratados com solução salina, os GSM e GTM receberam meloxicam e os GSP e GTP prednisona, sendo administrados pela via intraperitoneal. Em todos os ratos, foram avaliados os parâmetros de estresse oxidativo, testes neurológicos e exame histopatológico da medula espinhal. Os animais dos grupos GTS, GTM e GTP, nos diferentes tempos (24h, 72h e sete dias), tiveram pontuação zero na escala de Basso, Beattie e Bresnahan (BBB); no plano inclinado, permaneceram com pontuação três e perderam a percepção da dor profunda. Os grupos GTM e GTP apresentaram menor atividade da catalase e de níveis de TBARS, quando comparado ao grupo GTS. Foi constatada degeneração Walleriana e necrose da substância cinzenta de intensidades variáveis, não apresentando diferença entre os grupossubmetidos ao trauma. O meloxicam e a prednisona apresentam possível efeito antioxidante, mas não impedem a necrose e a degeneração Walleriana da medula espinhal de ratos.

 ABSTRACT The aim of the study was investigate the use of the prednisone and meloxicam in treatment of rats underwent to the experimental model of acute spinal cord injury with 2Fr Fogarty catheter, with evaluation of the oxidative stress, neurological test and histopathological analysis of the spinal cord. Ninety rats were separated into six equal groups denominated saline control or SCG, prednisone control or PCG, meloxicam control or MCG, saline and injury or STG, prednisone and injury PTG and meloxicam and injury MTG. Each group was divide into three subgroups according to treatment time in the postoperative period of 24h, 72h and seven days. All the rats underwent laminectomy and in the groups STG, MTG and PTG, after exposure of the spinal cord it was performed a compressive spinal cord injury with a 2Fr Fogarty catheter. The SCG and STG were treated with saline, MSG and MTG, with meloxicam and PSG and PTG with prednisone. All rats were evaluated for oxidative stress, neurological tests and histopathology of the spinal cord. Neurological tests were performed with Basso, Beattie e Bresnahan score (BBB), inclined plane and deep pain 24 hours before and after surgery and repeated every 48 hours until the day of euthanasia. The groups STG, MTG and PTG in the different times were zero point in the BBB scale and three points in the inclined plane and absence of deep pain. MTG and PTG had lower catalase activity and TBARS levels when compared to the STG. In the histopathological analysis it was found Wallerian degeneration and necrosis of gray matter of intensity variation. Meloxicam and prednisone can exhibit antioxidant effect, but the necrosis and Wallerian degeneration were not stop in rats underwent to acute spinal cord injury

3 de abr de 2015

Remoção de pino de Steinmann intra-abdominal por videolaparoscopia em um cão

Laparoscopic removal of a Steinmann pin from the peritoneal cavity in a dog

Ísis dos Santos Dal-Bó, Rafael Stedile, Márcio Poletto Ferreira, Fernanda Silveira Nóbrega, Marcelo Meller Alievi, Luciana Machado da Silva, Elisa Barp Neuwald, Simone Tostes Oliveira, Carlos Afonso de Castro Beck

 Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, v.43, n.2, p.314-317, fev, 2013

RESUMO: Durante a avaliação radiográfica aos 60 dias de pós-operatório de estabilização vertebral em um cão, foi observada a presença de um pino de Steinmann intraabdominal. Foi realizada cirurgia laparoscópica para inspeção cavitária e remoção do objeto. O implante estava envolvido pelo omento, não sendo observados sinais de infecção. O procedimento foi executado em 15 minutos e permitiu mínimo trauma. Os autores não encontraram relatos da migração desse tipo de implante para a cavidade peritoneal em cães com sucessiva remoção videocirúrgica. 

 ABSTRACT An intra-abdominal Steinmann pin was detected during a radiographic assessment of the 60th post- operative day of a vertebral stabilization in a dog. Laparoscopic inspection and retrieval of the foreign body were performed. The implant was surrounded by omentum with no noticeable signs of infection. The procedure was performed within 15 minutes with minimal trauma. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of this kind of implant migration to the peritoneal cavity followed by laparoscopic removal in dogs.

1 de abr de 2015



 Vet. e Zootec. 2014 set.; 21(3): 392-398.

 José Paes Oliveira Filho, Peres Ramos Badia, Andreza Pimenta Oliveira, Luis Emiliano Cisneros Álvarez, Jorge Luiz Oliveira Costa

 ABSTRACT Cranioschisis with meningocele at the parietal region was diagnosed in a 2-day-old calf. At presentation the animal was standing, attentive and had normal suckling reflex. However, an ovoid, soft, slightly lateral, bladder-like mass was observed extending from the intercornual protuberance to the insertion of the nuchal ligament. Physical examination and radiographs evidenced a deformity of the parietal bone and cranioplasty using a cartilage homograft was performed in an attempt to correct the bone defect. The calf did well postoperatively until day nine. However apathy and seizures were present from day 13 leading to death on day 15

27 de nov de 2014

Doenças neurológicas em cães atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS: 1.184 casos (2006-2013)

Link Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 34(10):996-1001 , 2014, Chaves R.O., Beckmann D.V., Santos R.P., Aiello G., Andrades A.O., Baumhardt R., Silveira L.B. & Mazzanti A. 
Resumo: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de cães atendidos no Serviço de Neurologia (SN) do Hospital Veterinário Universitário (HVU) da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), de 2006 a 2013, com o objetivo de identificar e caracterizar a idade, a raça, o sexo e as doenças neurológicas e classificá-las de acordo com a região anatômica e o acrônimo DINAMIT-V. Foram avaliadas 1.277 fichas neurológicas de cães e obtidas as informações para inclusão no estudo em 1.184 delas, sendo o diagnóstico confirmado em 525 cães (44,4%) e presuntivo em 659 (55,6%). A raça mais frequente foi Dachshund (28,7%), seguida dos cães sem raça definida. Os locais mais afetados foram medula espinhal entre T3-L3 (40,9%) e tálamo-córtex (17,5%). A maioria dos cães foi diagnosticada com doença degenerativa (49%), sendo a doença do disco intervertebral a mais observada, seguida das doenças inflamatórias/infecciosas (16,6%). Pode se concluir que a maior prevalência das doenças neurológicas de cães envolve a medula espinhal e o tálamo-córtex, sendo as degenerativas as mais frequentes e os dados obtidos podem auxiliar em futuros estudos sobre a frequência e a distribuição das principais doenças neurológicas em cães. 

Neurological diseases in dogs examined at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS: 1.184 cases (2006-2013).

Abstract:  A retrospective study including dogs with neurological disease was conducted at the  Service of Neurology (SN) of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Universidade Federal de  Santa Maria (UFSM) from 2006 to 20133, with the objective to identify and characterize age,  breed, sex and to neurological diseases, and classify them accordingly to the anatomical  region and DINAMIT-V acronym. There were evaluated 1,277 neurological records of dogs  and obtained the information for inclusion in the study in 1,184 of them being the diagnosis  confirmed in 525 (44.4%) and presumptive in 659 dogs (55.6%). The most common breed  was Dachshund (28.7%), followed by mixed bre. ed. The most affected sites were the spinal cord between T3-L3 (40.9%) and thalamus-cortex (17.5%).  Most dogs were diagnosed  with degenerative disorders (49%), being intervertebral disk disease the most observed,  followed by inflammatory/infectious diseases (16.6%).It can be concluded that the higher  prevalence of neurological disorders in dogs involve the spinal cord and thalamus-cortex,  with the most frequent being degenerative and the data obtained may assist future studies  associated with frequency and distribution of the main neurological diseases in dogs.

21 de nov de 2014

Corpectomia lateral parcial associada à pediculectomia no tratamento de condroma extradural em um cão: descrição da técnica

Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 66(5): 1323-1328, 2014

MARINHO, P. V. T. ; ZANI, C. C. ; JARK, P. C. ; MINTO, B. W. ; COSTA, M. T.

Partial lateral corpectomy associated with pediculectomy to treat extradural chondroma in a dog: technique description
Resumo: Objetivou-se descrever detalhadamente a técnica cirúrgica de corpectomia lateral parcial associada à pediculectomia no tratamento de um condroma extradural in vitro. Uma cadela de 12 anos de idade, raça Cocker Spaniel, foi atendida com ataxia proprioceptiva dos membros pélvicos associada à compressão extradural entre a primeira e a segunda vértebras lombares. Devido a alterações secundárias decorrentes de afecções concomitantes que culminavam em um prognóstico desfavorável, o proprietário optou pela eutanásia do paciente, e o cadáver foi formalmente cedido para realização de descompressão medular experimental. A técnica utilizada foi eficaz na remoção completa da massa extradural, com mínima manipulação da medula espinhal.

Abstract: This study aimed to describe in detail the surgical technique of partial lateral corpectomy (PLC) associated with pediculectomy to treat an in vitro extradural chondroma. A 12-year old female Cocker Spaniel was seen in the hospital with proprioceptive ataxia of hind limbs associated with extradural compression between the 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae. The owner opted for euthanasia since the patient?s condition changed due to simultaneous illnesses that culminated in a poor prognosis. The patient?s body was formally ceded to perform experimental spinal decompression. The technique was effective to completely remove the epidural mass with minimal manipulation of the spinal cord.

8 de out de 2014

Total vertebrectomy for stabilisation of chronic spinal lumbar luxation in a paraplegic dog without nociception


Journal of Small Animal Practice,Volume 55, Issue 10, Pages 485–541, October 2014

P. V. Tertuliano Marinho,C. C. Zani, F. De Biasi and M. V. Bahr Arias


         An adult male crossbred dog was referred with a history of a road traffic accident that took place 1 month earlier. Neurological examination revealed paraplegia with absent nociception in the pelvic limbs. On epaxial palpation, significant curvature of the anatomical axis of the spine between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae was observed, with the presence of a bone end almost piercing the dog's skin. Survey radiographs of the lumbar spine revealed severe dislocation between L3 and L4 vertebrae. During surgery, the spinal cord was not visible between the dislocated segments. Because of difficulties in reducing the lumbar luxation during surgery, vertebrectomy and vertebral shortening were performed. After alignment between vertebrae L3 and L5, eight cortical orthopaedic screws and bone cement were used for fixation. After 30 days, the dog started to use a wheelchair and was considered by its owner to have a good quality of life with no evidence of pain. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of severe luxation treated by total vertebrectomy and spine shortening in a dog. This surgery can be considered as an option in the management of severe spine luxation when the spinal cord is physically transected.

3 de out de 2014

Abiotrofia cerebelar em um canino American Staffordshire Terrier adulto no Brasil

 Cerebellar Abiotrophy in an American Staffordshire Terrier Adult Dog in Brazil


Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2014. 42(Suppl 1): 52.

Cristine Mari, Daniele Mariath Bassuino, Angelica Terezinha Barth Wouters, Marcele Bettim Bandinelli, David Driemeier & Saulo Petinatti Pavarini

Cerebellar abiotrophy is a spontaneous, progressive degenerative disease of the cerebellum in which Purkinje cell loss and functional disorders occur secondary to an intrinsic metabolic defect. Clinically, all animals with cerebellar  abiotrophy are normal at birth, and neurological signs become evident during development. This work aimed to report  and describe a case of cerebellar cortical abiotrophy in an adult American Staffordshire Terrier in Brazil, highlighting the  pathologic findings of the cerebellar lesions. A 10-year-old female American Staffordshire Terrier presented with a 3-year history of progressive neurological  changes.  These changes began with mild ataxia of the hind limbs that involved the forelimbs after 2 years. In the recent  months prior to presentation, the patient spent most of her time lying down with a head tilt. When she stood with her head  raised, she exhibited abasia and required a broad base of support. When she attempted to walk, she quickly fell and rolled  over if not supported. She could not eat on her own because of intense intention tremors. Because of the severity of her  condition, the decision was made to euthanize the animal. Necropsy examination revealed no signifi cant findings. Various organ specimens were collected, fi xed in 10% formalin, and processed for routine histology. The tissue sections were  stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Cerebellar specimens were subjected to immunohistochemistry (IHC). Two cerebellar specimens from two normal 8- to 9-year-old American Staffordshire Terriers were used as positive controls for IHC andand  comparative evaluation of the lesions. Histologically, the main changes were observed in the cerebellum and were characterized by necrosis, degeneration, and marked segmental loss of Purkinje cells; moderate reduction in the granular cells of  the cerebellar cortex; and thinning of the molecular layer. Cerebellar IHC in the affected canine showed a slight reduction
in immunoreactivity for neurofi laments in both the molecular layer and white matter as well as a marked increase in immunostaining for glial fi brillary acidic protein, indicating astrogliosis, in the molecular layer, granular layer, and white matter.  The diagnosis of cerebellar abiotrophy in this canine patient was based on clinical, pathologic, and immunohistochemical fi ndings. The framework cerebellar syndrome in an adult dog, slowly progressive, as in this case (10 years old with a 3-year clinical progression) is compatible with abiotrophy in the American Staffordshire Terrier. The main gross  lesions observed in the cerebellum of canines with abiotrophy are projected to decline; however, these changes can be subtle,  as in this case. Histopathology revealed a primary loss of Purkinje cells and depletion of the molecular and granular layers.  These characteristics have been identifi ed as hereditary in American Staffordshire Terriers and other breeds. The clinical  signs observed in this patient, namely ataxia, intention tremors, and abasia, refl ect the loss of function of the inhibitory  neurons of the cerebellar cortex. The fact that cerebellar abiotrophy is relatively common in purebred dogs and the great  variety in the early clinical signs and progression suggests different genetic etiologies in different breeds. An association  with breed is evidenced by the fact that the clinical manifestations of cerebellar abiotrophy in American Staffordshire Terriers start late and have been shown to be hereditary. This paper reports the occurrence of cerebellar cortex  abiotrophy as  a cause of neurological disease in an American Staffordshire Terrier in Brazil.

29 de set de 2014

Hipoplasia medular segmentar múltipla em um felino doméstico

 Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2014. 42(Suppl 1): 41.

Vinicius Gonzalez Peres Albernaz, Andressa Thais Roncoski, Gustavo Dittrich, Liv Cristina Miara & Jorge Luiz Costa Castro

Multiple Segmental Spinal Cord Hypoplasia in a Cat

The nervous system is one of the most affected by congenital malformations. These can occur during neural  tube formation or failed neurogenesis. Segmental spinal cord hypoplasia  commonly involves two or three spinal segments  in the thoracolumbar region. It is characterized by incomplete formation of the spinal cord and may also be followed by  spine column malformations. Clinical signs usually include functional impairment of the hindlimbs. Diagnosis is based  on history, clinical signs, age, radiographs and is confi rmed with necropsy and histopathological fi ndings.  There is no  treatment for this condition and the animals present low life quality. This paper aims to report the clinical, radiographic  and histopathological aspects of multiple segmental spinal cord hypoplasia in a domestic cat.  A 52-days-old, female, Persian breed, domestic cat weighing 0.55 kg was treated presenting a history of pelvic limb  paraplegia associated with urinary and fecal incontinence since birth. On clinical examination there were fl accid paraplegia  of hind limbs associated with absence of proprioception, anal refl ex and tone and postural defi cits. Also, all spinal reflexes  of pelvic limbs and deep and superfi cial pain were absent. There was no clinical history of muscular tremors, nystagmus,  seizures or other central nervous system signs. The other animals of the litter showed no apparent changes. Radiographic examination of the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral region showed enlargement of the spinal cord canal extending from the caudal portion of L1 to L7 and fl attening of the dorsal and ventral blades. It was observed that the height of the L5 spinal canal, the larger dilatation site, was about 300% higher than the cranial portion of L1, considered the last normal segment. Due to low life quality, the animal was euthanized and samples were collected. Histopathological examination showed neuronal loss in the gray matter, thickening of the dura mater and loss of defi nition of gray and white matter, confirming the diagnosis of spinal segmental hypoplasia in multiple regions of the spinal cord

26 de set de 2014

Síndrome de Haw em Gatos

 Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 2014. 42(Suppl 1): 45

Luis Felipe Dutra Corrêa,  Sérgio Santalucia,  Marília Teresa de Oliveira,  Fernando Wiecheteck de Souza, Virginea Heinze Pohl,  João Pedro Scusssel Feranti,  & Maurício Veloso Brun, 

 Haw’s syndrome is an uncommon but underdiagnosed disease that affects cats. It occurs due to changes in the innervation of the third eyelid causing protrusion. These changes may occur due to some change in sympathetic innervation efferent to the eye and its annexes The diagnosis is based on the instillation of sympathomimetic agents. The palliative treatment is based on the instillation of sympathomimetic agents only if the protrusion is preventing eyesight. The aim of this study is to report the clinical management of three cats with this syndrome, emphasizing its clinical, diagnostic and treatment demonstration. Three cats were referred to the Department of Ophthalmology Veterinary of the Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), two with undefi ned breeds (male and female) and a Siamese (male), aged between 2 and 4 years, with bilateral protrusion of the third eyelid. The owners reported that the animals ate well, were active and did not observe any other problems concomitantly, with the exception of diarrhea In one of the animals a week ago, but that had passed. The animals underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination where they were evaluated since the symmetry orbits until intraocular pressure, Schirmer tear test, fl uorescein test and lissamine green, without any obvious change, with values within the normal range for the species, except for the bilateral protrusion of the third eyelid was the only clinical sign present. In the fundoscopic exam no apparent changes were observed, with the optic nerve head and retinal vasculature normal for the species. All patients received instillation of 10% phenylephrine in the left eye, with total regression of the third  eyelid to its anatomical position. As it was an isolated problem, without visual or systemic  repercussions, no medication was prescribed, although the animals kept coming for revisions weekly for 60 days. After 47 days, on average, the third eyelid returned to its anatomical position.

22 de set de 2014

Anestesia epidural na cirurgia descompressiva lombossacral de cães

E.A. Tudury 1 , T.H.T. Fernandes 2 *, M.L. Figueiredo 2 , B.M. Araújo2 , M.A. Bonelli 2 , A.C. Silva 2 , C.R.O. Santos 3
1Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco -UFRPE - Recife, PE
2Alunos de pós-graduação - Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco - UFRPE - Recife, PE
3Aluna de graduação - Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco -UFRPE - Recife, PE

 Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. vol.66 no.3 Belo Horizonte June 2014

Objetivou-se avaliar viabilidade, eficácia, vantagens e desvantagens da anestesia epidural lombossacral, junto à anestesia geral inalatória, em cirurgias de descompressão da cauda equina, tendo em vista que essas cirurgias são procedimentos longos e dolorosos. Para isso, foram utilizados 11 cães adultos com sinais clínicos de síndrome da cauda equina, que foram submetidos à anestesia geral inalatória e deixados no estágio anestésico mais superficial. Depois, realizou-se a anestesia epidural em seis dos 11 pacientes, por punção espinhal em L7-S1, com bupivacaína a 0,5%. Os parâmetros fisiológicos (cardíacos, vasculares, respiratórios, temperatura corporal e glicemia) foram aferidos antes da medicação pré-anestésica, 10 minutos após esta, 30 minutos depois da epidural, depois da laminectomia, assim como após 60 minutos e 90 minutos da epidural, tanto no grupo com epidural como naquele sem esta (controle). Os animais que possuíam bloqueio epidural apresentaram redução significativa no consumo de anestésico inalatório e no tempo de extubação, não apresentando déficits neurológicos causados pela anestesia epidural, quando comparados com o grupo-controle. Conclui-se que a técnica de anestesia epidural é eficiente e vantajosa na realização de cirurgias descompressivas lombossacrais, pois proporciona menor risco anestésico para o animal.
Palavras-Chave: cauda equina; bloqueio anestésico; analgesia

The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages of lumbosacral epidural anesthesia with inhalational anesthesia in surgical decompression of the cauda equina, since this surgery has a lengthy and painful recovery from anesthesia. For this, 11 adult dogs which showed clinical signs of cauda equina syndrome were used. After the epidural, anesthesia in six of 11 patients, spinal tap in L7-S1, with bupivacaine 0.5% anesthetic was used. Physiological parameters (heart, vascular, respiratory and body temperature) were measured before, 10 minutes after, and 30 minutes after the epidural, after the laminectomia and 60 minutes and 90 minutes after the epidural, both in the epidural group and the control group. Animals that had ep showed a significant reduction in consumption of inhaled anesthetic and time of extubation. There were no neurological deficits caused by epidural anesthesia compared with the group without epidural anesthesia. It was concluded that the epidural anesthesia technique is effective in lumbosacral decompression surgeries, leading to a lower risk for the anesthetized animal.
Key words: cauda equina; anesthesia; analgesia